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Miitl) Notes anti an SntroOuction, 




Published by 


514 West 113th Street 
New York 25, N. Y. 

no. 41 








The Rioht Hon. Sib DAVID DUNDAS, F.R.G.S., Peesident. 

■ Vice-Presidents. 


MajobGen. Sir HENRY C. RAWLINSON, K.C.B., Pbes.R.G.8. j 


J. BARROW, Esq., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Reab-Admiral C0LTJN80N, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

General C. FOX, F.R.G.S. 

W. E. FRERE, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

Captain J. G. GOODENOUGH, R.N., F.R.G.S. 




R. H. MAJOR, Esq., F.S.A. , 8ec.R.G.8. 



Vice-admiral ERASMUS OMMANNEY, C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Captain SHERARD OSBORN, R.N., C.B., F.R.G.S. 

The Lord STANLEY of Aldbrley. 


CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, C.B., F.S.A., Sec.R.G.S., Honorary Secbetary. 





Intkoduction - - - ' - xi 

Itinerary of Francisco Pizarro, in the Account of 


1524. Nov. H. Pizarro first sailed from Panama - - 3 

Sufferings at Port Famine . _ - lb. 

Pizarro at Chuchama - - - i 

Almagro's first voyage . . - if,. 

Second expedition of Pizarro and Almagro - 5 
Pizarro at the river San Juan. Voyage of the 

Pilot Ruiz - - - - 

Pizarro reaches San Mateo and Atacames - 7 

Pizarro and his companions on the Isle of Gallo - 8 

1526 - - Pizarro reaches the coast of Peru - - 9 

1527 - - Pizarro goes to Spain - - - 11 

1529. July 2(3. Capitulation between Pizarro and Queen Juana - ib. 

1530. Jan. - Pizarro sails from Spain - - - 12 

1531. ,, - Pizarro sails from Panama _ . . {(>. 

The expedition reaches the Isle of Puna - 13 

Arrival at Tumbez - - - - 16 

1532. May 16. Departure from Tumbez - - - 19 

,, 18. At a village among the hills - - - 20 

,, 24. Encamp at Puechio, on the river Turicarami (or 

Chira) .... H. 

,, ,, Sea port of Payta discovered - - - 21 


1532. May 24. Cruelty to chiefs of Almotaxe and Lachira - 22 

,, ., Founding of San Miguel, at Tacgarara - - 23 

Sep. 24. Departure from San Miguel - - - 25 

,, 27. In the valley of Piura ... ij. 

Oct. 7. At Pabor, in the Piura valley - - 26 

,, ,, Expedition of Soto to Caxas and Huancabamba - ib. 

,, 8. At Zaran in the Piura valley - - - 27 

,, 16. Return of Soto. Account of Caxas. Embassy 

from Atahuallpa - - - ib. 

,, 17-19. Crossing the desert of Sechura - - 31 

,, 20-24. At Copiz. At Motux (Motupe) - - ib. 

„ 28. Hernando Pizarro swims across river at Cinto - 33 

Nov. 4, 5, 6. Marching across coast valleys - - 35 

,, 10. Commence the ascent of the Cordilleras from La 

Ramada - - - - 37 

,, 15. Arrive at Cassamarca - - - 44 

,, ,, Interview of H. Pizarro and Soto with Ata- 
huallpa - - - - 48 

,, 16. Seizure and imprisonment of Atahuallpa - 65 

Arms of the Ynca army - - - 60 

Palace of Atahuallpa near Cassamarca - - 61 

TheYncas - - - - 62 

Great Ransom offered by Atahuallpa - - 65 

The Pachacamac oracle - - - 67 

1533. Feb. - Arrival of Almagro - - - 69 

,, 5. Three Spaniards sent to Cuzco - - 72 

Jan. 5. Expedition of Hernando Pizarro - - 71 

Itinerary of Hernando Pizarro, in the Report of 


1533. Jan. 5. Left Cassamarca. Dined at Ychoca - - 74 

6. Huancasanga - - - - 75 

7. Guamachuco . _ _ _ ib 

8. Tambo - - - - - 76 
9-13. Andamarca - - - - ib. 

14. Totopamba - - - - ib. 



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Departed from Xanxa 

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Huanuco (Giiaiieso) 


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1533. May 3. Melting of the gold and silver - - 94 

Amount of the ransom - - - 95 

Prices of provisions - - - - 98 

Golden ornaments - - - - 99 

Accusations against Atahuallpa - - ib. 

Murder of Atahuallpa - - - 102 

Appearance of a comet . _ - 106 

Return of Spaniards with gold - - 107 

1534. July 3. Return of the author to Spain - - 109 

Letter of Hernando Pizarro. 

Address to the Royal Audience - - - - 113 

March to Cassamarca ... - - ib. 

Interview with Atahuallpa _ . . - 115 

Approach of Atahuallpa ----- 117 
Capture of Atahuallpa - - - - -118 

Advance to Guamachuco - • - - - 120 

March *o Pachacamac - - - - - 121 

Account of Pachacamac ----- 123 
March to Xauxa . _ - - - 125 

Return to Cassamarca ----- 126 
Account of the treasure - - - - - ib. 

Report on the Distribution of the Ransom of Atahu- 


Francisco de Xeres, the Secretary of Pizarro, wrote 
his account of the early days of the conquest of 
Peru, on the spot, by order of his master. He sailed 
from San Lucar, with Pizar^ro, in January 1530, was 
with the conqueror in his voyage, in his march along 
the Peruvian coast and across the Andes, and was 
an eye-witness of the events at Cassamarca, down to 
the murder of the Ynca Atahuallpa. He returned 
to Seville on July 3rd, 1534, after an absence of four and a half, with the first instalments of gold. 
His friends lived at Seville, and I gather from Argote 
de Molina^ that he came of a respectable family set- 
tled at Ubeda ; but nothing is known of himself 
personally, beyond what can be deduced from his 

The narrative of Xeres appears to have been 
printed at Seville in 1534, the year of his return, 
but this first edition is extremely scarce. The second 
edition, which was very carelessly printed, appeared 
at Salamanca in 1547, and is also very rare. The 

^ Nohleza de Andalusia (Sc villa, 1588), p. &&. Argote de Mo- 
lina gives the ai'ms of the Xeres family. Vert, in base waves of 
the sea azure and. argent, on them a tower argent and fastened to 
11 (I, boat iritlt its oar or. On a bordure gules eight St. Andrevj's 
'.Tiisses or. 


third, and best known Spanish edition, was published 
at Madrid, in the collection of Don Andres Gonzalez 
Barcia,'^ in 1749. The work was translated into 
ItaHan by a native of Tudela, named Domingo de 
Gaztelii, who was Secretary to Lope de Soria, Am- 
bassador to Venice for Charles V, and published at 
Venice in 1535. A second edition of the Italian 
version was published at Venice, in the collection of 
Ramusio,^ in 1556. Purchas gives a very brief 
notice of it, in his Filgrimes;* and Ticknor mentions 
the work in his history of Spanish literature.^ It is 
much quoted by Robertson, Prescott, and Helps, in 
their accounts of the conquest of Peru. A careful 
French version was published at Paris, by M. Ter- 
naux Compans,^ in his series of works on Spanish 
America, in 1837 ; but no complete English transla- 
tion has hitherto been made. 

As the account of an intelligent and observant 
eye-witness, the story told by Francisco de Xeres, 
of the most stirring episode in the wonderful history 
of Spanish conquests, is exceedingly interesting. 
Some portions of the story, here and there, are told 
in more detail by Herrera and other compilers, but, 
in reading their versions, we miss the feeling that 
the author was an actor in the deeds he narrates ; 

2 " Historiadores Primitivos de las Indias Occidentales," iii, p. 
179. ^ Bamusio, iii, pp. 378-98. 

* Purchas, Pilgrimes, iv, pp. 1491-94. 

^ Ticknor, i, p. 521. 

6 '■^Voyages, relations et memoires originaux pour servir a Vhistoire 
de la decouverte de VAmerique" (Paris, 1837). H. Ternaux 


and thus, in Xeres, there is a freshness and reality 
which no other published account of the conquest 
can impart. Xeres himself relates the proceedings 
of the Governor Francisco Pizarro. But he has 
given much increased value to his work, by embody- 
ing in it the report by Miguel Astete, another eye- 
witness, of the expedition of Hernando Pizarro, to 
the famous temple of Pachacamac. This remarkable 
journey of Hernando in quest of gold, undertaken 
by a mere handful of men into the heart of an un- 
known land, is as attractive to the imagination as 
the incredible audacity of Francisco's entei-prise. 
Xeres and Astete were both eye-witnesses, and their 
detailed narratives combine to record the incidents 
of two of the most surprising marches in the history 
of Spanish discovery. 

The letter of Hernando Pizarro to the Royal 
Audience of Santo Domingo,'' which follows the nar- 
rative of Xeres, was written when that ruthless con- 
queror was on his way to Spain, with the king's 
share of the spoils. It goes over exactly the same 
ground as the Reports of Xeres and Astete, it is 
peculiarly valuable as containing the observations of 
the man of highest rank in the expedition who could 
write, and the slight variations between the accounts 
of Xeres and Pizarro, in relating the same incidents, 
are particularly interesting. One very odious pe- 
culiarity of Hernando Pizarro was, that he habitually 

7 In the " Historia General" of Oviedo, cap. xv, lib. 43. Re- 
printed in the " Vidas de Espanoles celebres, par Don Manuel 
Josef Qiiiidanci" (Paris, 1845), p. 180, 


tortured the Indians when he wished to obtain in- 
formation from them. Yet on the three occasions 
on which he mentions having apphed the torture, in 
this letter, he was told lies. One would have 
thought that so acute an observer would have dis- 
covered that this was a very inefficient method of 
conducting the operations of an Intelligence Depart- 
ment. The fourth document in this volume is the 
Report of Pedro Sancho on the distribution of the 
ransom of Atahuallpa f in which he gives the 
amounts received by each of the conquerors. 

Hernando Pizarro and Miguel de Astete give us 
the first account of the temple of Pachacamac on 
the Peruvian coast, which was afterwards described 
by Cieza de Leon and Garcilasso de la Vega, and 
the real significance of which is not fully understood, 
and has been a good deal exaggerated. The subject 
is one which may appropriately be discussed in an 
Introduction to the narratives of Hernando Pizarro 
and Astete ; and the following remarks will perhaps 
invest them with some additional interest. 

The famous temple on the Pacific coast has usually 
been supposed to have been the only temple to the 
Supreme Being in Peru ; and it has even been sug- 
gested that, as such, it is older than the time of the 
Yncas, and that they adopted this worship from 
another people. Mr. Prescott^ says that no temple 

* From the inedited work of Francisco Lopez de Caravantes. 
It is reprinted in the "Vidas de Espafioles celebres, por Don flannel 
Josef Quintana" (Paris, 1845j, p. 185. 

" Prescottj i, p. 85. 


was raised to Pachacamac, the Creator of the World, 
save one only which took its name from the Deity 
Himself; that it existed before the country came 
under the sway of the Yncas, and was a resort of 
pilgrims from remote parts of the land ; and that 
these circumstances suggest the idea that the wor- 
ship of this Great Spirit did not originate with the 
Peruvian Princes. Mr. Helps^ also says that a temple 
to Pachacamac existed before the time of the Yncas, 
and that they artfully connected this Deity with 
their own religion, making out that the Sun was his 
father, and thus strengthening themselves by alliance 
with this primaeval Deity. Rivero adopts the same 
view, namely that the Gods Con and Pachaca- 
mac were early deities, whose temple was on the 
sea-coast, and that the Yncas cunningly adopted 
their worship, saying that these gods were sons of 
the Sun.^ There is no adequate authority for these 
theories, and they seem to have arisen from a mis- 
apprehension of the story as told by early writers. 
The inhabitants of the Peruvian coast, called 

1 Helps, iii, p. 498. The name of Con, given by Mr. Helps, 
from Las €asas, as the father of Pachacamac, has originated in 
some blunder among the Spanish writers. It is not an Ynca 
word at all, and the legend concerning this Con has no connection 
whatever with any Ynca people. See also Gomara, Hist, de Las 
hidias, cap. cxxii. The prefix Con is found in the names applied 
to sacred things by the coast people, and it lingered still longer 
in the valleys of Huarochiri. Its meaning is now lost, but it be- 
longed to the coast language. Thus there was a god in Huaro- 
chiri called Coniraya, and the general name of all small stone 
idols in Huarochiri was Conopa. See Avila MS. 

^ Antiguedades Feruanas, p. 144. 


Yu7icas by their Ynca conquerors, were an entirely 
distinct race from the people of the Andes, with a 
language differing both in its vocabulary and gram- 
matical construction. After long and fierce wars 
they were conquered by the Yncas, their language 
was superseded by Quichua, many were sent as colo- 
nists into the interior, Ynca colonists settled on- the 
coast, and the nationaUty of the Yuncas was de- 
stroyed Very little can now be learnt respecting 
them. The coast valleys were densely peopled, as is 
shown by the fact of ruined towns being always 
found on the verge of the desert, so as not to en- 
croach on the cultivatable area. They had brought 
the art of irrigation to a high state of perfection, and 
they adorned the walls of their buildings with richly 
coloured paintings. We have no dictionary of their 
language, but we have a grammar and vocabulary 
by Carrera,^ and a few specimens of one of its dialects 
preserved by Bishop Ore.* Of the nature of their 
religion we know still less. Avila has recorded 
some curious traditions,^ and it would seem, from 
the proceedings of Arriaga, the extirpator of idola- 
try, that they were much addicted to sorcery and 
fortune- telling.^ Their gods were made to give 

' Arte de la lengua de los valles del Obispado de Truxlllo ; jpor 
Bon Fernando de la Carrera (Lima, 1644). 

* The Mochica spoken once in the valleys of Huarcu (Caiiete), 
Runahuanac (Lunahuana), and Chiucha. " liituale seu Manuale 
Peruanum; por Lu.^ovic-um Hieronymum Oremtm" (Neapoli, 1607). 

^ In his narrative of the errors, false gods, and other diabolical 
rites of the Indians of Huarochiri. MS. in the Biblioteca Nacional 
at Madrid, B. 35. 

^ " Extirpacion de la idolatria do los Indios del Peru ; por Pedro 


out oracles, and the shrines became rich and im- 
portant, in proportion to the credit they attained in 
forecasting events. Thus, there was a famous oracle 
in the valley, thence called R'lmac, or "the Speaker", 
by the Ynca conquerors ; and a still more renowned 
one was the fish-god in the city, afterwards called by 
the Ynca,s Fachacamac, to which pilgrims resorted 
from all parts of the coast. But this fish-god was 
not Pachacamac, nor was the word Pachacamac 
known to the people of the coast before they were 
conquered by the Yncas. It is an Ynca word, and 
is wholly foreign to, and unconnected with, the coast 
language. The priests of the fish-god, it would seem, 
became famous as fortune-tellers, ; their shrine was 
resorted to by pilgrims from distant valleys, and a 
large city grew up around it, on the margin of the 
sea, and of the rich vale of Lurin. The name of 
the deity has not been preserved, but it certainly 
was not Pachacamac. 

In course of time the coast valleys were conquered 
by the Yncas, who gave them Quichua names. Nasca, 
Pisco, Punahuanac, Pachacamac, Rimac, Huaman, 
etc., are all pure Quichua names. It seems clear, 
therefore, that, when the Ynca Garcilasso tells us 
that the coast lord Cuismancu had adopted the wor- 
ship of Pachacamac from the Yncas, and had built a 
temple to him, in which however he placed the fish 
and fox-gods of the Yuncas, that his ideas were con- 

Ju^e de Arriarja" (Lima, 1621). The old fanatic says that he 
punished sixty-three wizards, in the coast valleys. 


fused/ He assumed that there was a worship of 
Pachacamac because the place had received that 
name; but the fish and fox-gods are a clear proof that 
a Supreme Being was not worshipped there. In short 
the word Pachacamac had nothing to do with the re- 
Hgion of the coast people. The worship of the Supreme 
Being, under the names of Fa.chsiCSim.SiQ'^ {Creator of the 
World) and Pachayachachic" {Teacher of the World), 
formed a prominent feature in the rehgion of the 
Yncas. The names occur, and have the first place, in 
nearly all the ceremonial prayers of the Yncas given 
by Molina.^ When the Yncas conquered the coast- 
city of the fish-god, they assigned to it the name of 
Pachacamac, for some reason that has not been pre- 
served, possibly on account of its size and importance. 
The Yncas frequently named places after their 
deities or sacred festivals. Thus, besides this Pacha- 
camac, we have another at Tumebamba, and Vilca- 
nota, Fz7ca-pampa, Fi7ca-cunca, ^z^aca-chaca, Huaca- 
puncu, i2a?/m^-pampa, and many more.^ 

^ Conim. Real., Pt. i, lib. vi, cap. 30, Herrera is still more in 
the dark. He says that the Yncas believed in a Creator of all 
things called Viracocha, to whom they built a very rich temple 
called Pachiamac. Dec. v, lib. iv, cap. 4. 

® From Pacha (the world) and camac the participle of Camani 
(I create). See G. de la Vega, i, lib. ii, cap. 22 ; and lib, v, 
cap. 12. 

* From Pacha (the world) and YarJmchic, participle of Yacha- 
chini (I teach). See Acosta, lib. v,.cap. 12 ; G. de la Vega, Pt. i, 
lib. V, cap. 18 ; and Molina MS. 

' Belacion de las fabulas y ritos de los Yncas, hecha jpor Chris- 
toval de Molina. MS. at Madrid, B. 35. 

'^ Vilca is a sacred place, Htiaca an analogous but more com- 
prehensive term, and Raymi the great festival of the Sun, 


But they never built any temple to Pachacamac, 
md there never was one to that deity, except at 
Cuzco. On the summit of the lofty hill, overhang- 
ing the town of Pachacamac, they erected a temple 
of the Sun, which was approached by three wide 
terraces. Rivero states^ that the temple of the Sun 
was not on the top of the hill, but Cieza de Leon' dis- 
tinctly asserts that the loftiest part was set aside as a 
temple of the Sun. Astete also says that, adjoining 
the '' mosque" (that is, the temple of the fish-god), 
there was a house of the Sun, situated on a hill, with 
five surrounding walls. Hernando Pizarro tells us 
that the store-rooms of gold and the convents of 
women were at the foot of the hill, and that the 
chief priest and the building containing the fish-god 
(devil, as he calls it) were on the terrace platform 
above. Higher up there were two other wide terraces, 
and the temple of the Sun was on the summit. 

The Yncas built a temple of the Sun on the hill 
top ; though, in accordance with their usual policy, 
they allowed the wooden fish idol to remain in its 
shrine below ; which they even condescended to 
consult as an oracle, from conciliatory motives. But 
its importance waned after the Ynca conquest, the 
pilgrims fell oft' in numbers, and the town began to 
lose its citizens. When Hernando Pizarro arrived 
in 1533, the greater part of the outer wall had 
fallen, and there were many houses in ruins. Here 
is an additional proof that this was not a temple to 

3 Antiq. Per., p. 291. 

■* Sec my translation, p. 203. 


the Ynca deity Pachacamac, "the only temple in 
Peru dedicated to the Supreme Being". If such 
had been the case, its importance would have in- 
creased, and not diminished, after the conquest by 
the Yncas, in whose prayers the Creator ever had 
the first place. There is no reason for supposing 
that pilgrims ever resorted to the shrine of the fish- 
god from any part of the empire of the Yncas, except 
the coast valleys ; and the diversity of skulls alleged 
to have been found among the ruins is sufficiently 
accounted for by the presence of mitimaes or colonists, 
and by the marches of Ynca armies.^ 

The conclusions I have formed are, that the wor- 
sliip of Pachacamac, the Creator of the World, was 
a part of the Ynca religious belief ; and that it was 
whollv unconnected with the coast Indians : that 
there never was any temple to Pachacamac at the 
place on the coast to which the Yncas gave that 
name, for some reason now forgotten ; that the 
natives worshipped a fish-god there under a name 
now lost, which became famous as an oracle, and 
attracted pilgrims ; and that, when the Yncas con- 
quered the place, they raised a temple to the Sun, 
on the summit of the hill commanding the city of 
the fish-god, whence the glorious luminary could be 
seen to descend behind the distant horizon, and 
bathe the ocean in floods of lio^ht. These conclusions 
are supported by the writings of Garci lasso de la 
Vega and Cieza de Leon, and by the report of 
Astete ; and they agree with all that is recorded of 

'" Sec my translation of Cieza de Leon. Note, p. 252. 


the religions belief of the Yncas, and with the few 
facts that can be gathered, from various sources, 
touching the Yuncas or coast Indians. 

The present Editor examined the ruins of Pacha- 
camac, in much detail, in 1853 and again in 1854, 
and made a plan of them. He again visited them 
on the 19th of February, 1860, accompanied by an 
Irish chieftain and two Englishmen. We ascended 
the terraces on horseback to the platform of the 
temple of the San ; where the old Catholic chieftain 
broke out in praise of the Yncas. We reminded him 
of their heresy, but he repeated, as he drained his 
sherry flask, " Here is to the Yncas ! God rest their 
souls in peace !" We rode back through the narrow 
streets to Lurin, and, in memory of the event, one 
of our party wrote the following lines, contrasting 
the Catholic Hernando Pizarro of the sixteenth, with 
the Catholic Hibernian of the nineteenth century. 

The sunlight glanced from helm and spear 

Upon the terraced height. 
And awe-struck crowds had gathered round 

Beneath the temple bright. 

High on the ruined altar stone 

The iron conqueror stood, 
And o'er the broken idol held 

Outstretch'd the holy rood. 

And as he preach'd God's truth, his brow 

Darker and darker grew, 
And the people feared the bloodstain'd man, 

And they feared his bloodstain'd crew. 

For his speech was cruel and fierce to them. 
And hard to understand. 



As he cursed the children of the Sun, 
The rulers of the land. 

* * * 

Full many a year is passed and gone 
Since that strange scene befell, 

Of many a tale of blood and woe 
The silent ruins tell. 

We stood upon the temple wall, 
And fierce the sunlight beat 

Upon the sand that compassed round 
The city at our feet. 

The ruin'd terrace gardens told 
Of splendour passed away, 

And bleaching in the Sun, the bones 
Of Priest and WarWor lay. 

Then one who held the ancient creed 
Of him who preached of yore. 

And bowed before the self-same sign. 
The cross the conqueror bore. 

Raised high the wine cup in his hand, 
" We'll drink the noble dead ! 

The Princely Rulers of the land ! 
God rest their souls,"' he said. 

As through the silent streets below 
We rode among the dead. 

We mused which held the faith of Him 
Whose blood for all was shed. 

Or he who cursed the Pagan Kings, 
And bade their empire cease. 

Or he who prayed above their graves, 
"God rest their souls in peace". 




Called New Castille, conquered by F7'ancisco Pizarro, 

captain to His Majesty the Emperor, 

our Master. 

Dedicated to His Majesty the Emperor by 


Native of the most noble and most loyal town of Seville, Secretary 
to the said Captain in all the Provinces and Countries 
conquered in New Castille, and one of the first 
conquerors of that country. 


Second Edition. 



Because the Divine Providence; and the fortune of Caesar ; 
and the prudence, fortitude, military discipline, labours, 
perilous navigations, and battles of the Spaniards, vassals 
of the most invincible Emperor of the Roman Empire, our 
natural King and Lord, v^ill cause joy to the faithful and 
terror to the infidels ; for the glory of God our Lord and 
for the service of the Catholic Imperial Majesty ; it has 
seemed good to me to write this narrative, and to send it 
to your Majesty, that all may have a knowledge of what is 
here related. It will be to the glory of God, because they 
have conquered and brought to our holy Catholic Faith so 
vast a number of heathens, aided by His holy guidance. It 
will be to the honour of our Emperor because, by reason of 
his great power and good fortune, such events happened in 
his time. It will give joy to the faithful that such battles 
have been won, such provinces discovered and conquered, 
such riches brought home for the King and for themselves ; 
and that such terror has been spread among the infidels, 
such admiration excited in all mankind. 

For when, either in ancient or modem times, have such 
great exploits been achieved by so few against so many ; 
over so many climes, across so many seas, over such dis- 
tances by land, to subdue the unseen and unknown ? 
Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain ? Not 
surely those of the Jews, nor of the Greeks, nor even of the 


Romans, of whom more is written than of any other people. 
For though the Romans subjugated so many provinces, yet 
they did so with an equal number of troops or but slightly 
less in number, and the lands were known, and well supplied 
with provisions, and their captains and armies were paid. 
But our Spaniards, being few in number, never having more 
than two hundred or three hundred men together, and some- 
times only a hundred and even fewer (only once, and that 
twenty years ago, with the Captain Pedrarias, was there the 
larger number of fifteen hundred men) ; and those who have 
come at different times being neither paid nor pressed, but 
serving of their own free wills and at their own costs, have, 
in our times, conquered more territory than has ever been 
known before, or than all the faithful and infidel princes pos- 
sessed. Moreover, they supported themselves on the savage 
food of the people, who had no knowledge of bread or wine, 
suffering on a diet of herbs, fruits, and roots. Yet they 
have made conquests which are now known to all the world. 
I will only write, at present, of what befell in the conquest 
of New Castillo ; and I will not write much, in order to 
avoid prolixity. 

The South Sea having been discovered, and the inhabi- 
tants of Tierra Firme having been conquered and pacified, 
the Governor Pedrarias de Avila founded and settled the 
cities of Panama and of Nata, and the town of Nombre de 
Dios. At this time the Captain Francisco Pizarro, son of 
the Captain Gonzalo Pizarro, a knight of the city of Truxillo, 
was living in the city of Panama ; possessing his house, his 
farm, and his Indians, as one of the principal people of the 
land, which indeed he always was, having distinguished 
himself in the conquest and settling, and in the service of 
his Majesty. Being at rest and in repose, but full of zeal 
to continue his labours and to perform other more distin- 
guished services for the royal crown, he sought permission 
from Pedrarias to discover that coast of the South Sea to 


the eastward. He spent a large part of his fortune on a 
good ship which he built, and on necessary supplies for the 
voyage, and he set out from the city of Panama on the 14th 
day of the month of November, in the year 1524.^ He had 
a hundred and twelve Spaniards in his company, besides 
some Indian servants. He commenced a voyage in which 
they suffered many hardships, the season being winter and 
unpropitious. I shall omit many things that happened 
which might be tedious, and will only relate the notable 
events, and those that are most to the purpose. 

Seventy days after leaving Panama they landed at a port 
which was afterwards named Port Famine. They had pre- 
viously landed at many ports, but had abandoned them be- 
cause there were no inhabitants. The captain and eighty 
men remained in this port (the remainder having died) ; 
and because their provisions had come to an end, and there 
were none in that land, he sent the ship, with the sailors 
and an officer,^ to the Isle of Pearls (which is in the juris- 
diction of Panama) to obtain supplies, thinking that, at the 
end of ten or twelve days, they would return with succour. 
But Fortune is always, or generally, adverse ; and the ship 
never returned for forty-seven days, during which time the 
captain and his companions subsisted on a sea-weed that 
they found on the shore, collecting it with much trouble. 
Some of them, being sorely weakened, died. They also 
fed on some very bitter palm fruits. During the absence of 
the ship, in going and returning, more than twenty men 
died. When the ship returned with supplies, the captain 
and mariners related how, when the supplies did not come, 
they had eaten a tanned cow-hide which had been used to 
cover the pump. They boiled it and divided it amongst 
themselves. The survivors were refreshed with the supplies 
brought by the ship, consisting of maize and pigs ; and 

* Herrera gives the same date. Cieza de Leon and Garcilasso de la 
Vega have 1525. ^ Named Montenegro. 


the captain set out to continue his voyage. He came to 
a town on the sea-shore^ built in a strong position and sur- 
rounded by pallisades. Here he found provisions in abun- 
dance, but the inhabitants fled from the town. The next 
day a number of armed men came. They were warlike and 
well armed ; while the Christians were reduced by hunger 
and their previous hardships. The Christians were defeated 
and their captain received seven wounds, the slightest of 
which was dangerous. The Indians, who had wounded him, 
left him because they thought he was dead. Seventeen 
other men were wounded with him, and five were killed. 
Seeing the result of this disaster, and the small chance of 
being able to cure and revive his people, the captain em- 
barked and returned to the land of Panama, landing at an 
Indian village near the island of Pearls, called Chuchama.^ 
Thence he sent the ship to Panama,^ for she had become 
unseaworthy by reason of the teredo ; and all that had be- 
fallen was reported to Pedrarias, while the captain remained 
behind to refresh himself and his companions. 

When the ship arrived at Panama it was found that, a 
few days before, the Captain Diego de Almagro had sailed 
in search of the Captain Pizarro, his companion, with an- 
other ship and seventy men. He sailed as far as the village 
where the Captain Pizarro was defeated, and the Captain 
Almagro had another encounter with the Indians of that 
place, and was also defeated. He lost an eye, and many 
Christians were wounded; but, nevertheless, the Indians 
abandoned the village, which was set on fire. They again 
set out, and followed the coast until they came to a great 
river, which they called San Juan* because they arrived there 
on his day. They there found signs of gold, but there being 

' The province of Chuchama was discovered by Pascual de i^ ndagoya 
in 1522. See my translation of Andagoya, p. 40. 
' In command of his treasurer, Nicolas de Ribera. 
■* A few miles north of the port of Buenaventura, in New Granada. 


no traces of the Captain Pizarro, the Captain Almagro re- 
turned to Chuchama, where he found his comrade. They 
agreed that the Captain Almagro should go to Panama, 
repair the ships, collect more men to continue the enter- 
prise, and defray the expenses, which amounted to more 
than teu thousand castellanos .^ At Panama much obstruc- 
tion was caused by Pedrarias and others, who said that the 
voyage should not be persisted in, and that his Majesty 
would not be served by it. The Captain Almagro, with the 
authority given him by his comrade, was very constant in 
prosecuting the work he had commenced, and he required 
the Governor Pedrarias not to obstruct him, because he 
believed, with the help of God, that his Majesty would be 
well served by that voyage. Thus Pedrarias was forced to 
allow him to engage men. He set out from Panama with a 
hundred and ten men ; and went to the place where Pizarro 
waited with another fifty of the first hundred and ten who 
sailed with him, and of the seventy who accompanied Alma- 
gro when he went in search. The other hundred and thirty 
were dead. The two captains, in their two ships, sailed 
with a hundred and sixty men, and coasted along the 
land.^ When they thought they saw signs of habitations, 
they went on shore in three canoes they had with them, 
rowed by sixty men, and so they sought for provisions. 

They continued to sail in this way for three years, suffer- 
ing great hardships from hunger and cold. The greater 
part of the crews died of hunger, insomuch that there were 
not fifty surviving, and during all those three years they 
discovered no good land. All was swamp and inundated 
country, without inhabitants. The good country they dis- 
covered was as far as the river San Juan, where the Captain 

* The value of the castellano varied. At this time it was worth about 
eight shillings. 

« Their experienced and resolute Pilot was Bartolom6 Ruiz, a native 
of Moguer, in Andalusia. 


Pizarro remained with the few surv^ivors, sending a captain''' 
with the smaller ship to discover some good land further 
along the coast. He sent the other ship, with the Captain 
Diego de Almagro, to Panama to get more men, because 
with the two vessels together and so few men no discovery 
could be made, and the people died. The ship that was 
sent to discover, returned at the end of seventy days to the 
river of San Juan, where the Captain Pizarro remained with 
his people, and reported to him what had befallen. They 
had arrived at the village of Cancebi, which is on this coast, 
and before they reached it, the crew of the ship had seen 
other inhabited places, very rich in gold and silver, and in- 
habited by more intelligent people than they had previously 
met with. They brought six persons that they might leai'n 
the language of the Spaniards, together with gold, silver, 
and cloths.^ The Captain and his comrades received this 
news with so much joy, that they forgot all their former 
sufferings, and the expenses they had incurred, and con- 
ceived a strong desire to see that land which appeared to be 
so inviting. As soon as the Captain Almagro arrived from 
Panama with a ship laden with men and horses, the two 
ships, with their commanders and all their people, set out 
from the river San Juan^ to go to that newly-discovered 
land. But the navigation was difficult, they were detained 
so long^ that the provisions were exhausted, and the people 
were obliged to go on shore in search of supplies. The 

' Ruiz, the Pilot. 

8 Ruiz discovered the bay of San Mateo and the isle of Gallo, and 
encountered a native raft, laden with merchandise : vases and mirrors 
of silver, and cotton and woollen cloths. Some of the people on board 
•were natives of Tumbez ; and he took six into his vessel, intending to 
make them learn Spanish, and become interpreters. The furthest point 
reached by Ruiz was the Cape of Passaos, and he was thus the first 
European to cross the line in the Pacific Ocean. 

* They had constant northerly winds, with heavy squalls, and storms 
of thunder and lightning. 


ships reached the bay of San Mateo, and some villages to 
which the Spaniards gave the name of Santiago. Next they 
came to the villages of Tacamez/ on the sea coast further 
on. These villages were seen by the Christians to be large 
and well peopled ; and when ninety Spaniards had advanced 
a league beyond the villages of Tacamez,^ more than ten 
thousand Indian warriors encountered them ; but seeing 
that the Christians intended no evil, and did not wish to 
take their goods, but rather to treat them peacefully with 
much love, the Indians desisted from war. In this land 
there were abundant supplies, and the people led well-ordered 
lives, the villages having their streets and squares. One 
village had more than three thousand houses, and others 
were smaller. 

It seemed to the Captains and to the other Spaniards that 
nothing could be done in that land by reason of the small- 
ness of their number, which rendered them unable to cope 
with the Indians. So they agreed to load the ships with 
the supplies to be found in the villages, and to return to 
an island called Gallo,^ where they would be safe until the 
ships arrived at Panama with the news of what had been 
discovered, and to apply to the Governor for more men, in 
order that the Captains might be able to continue their 
undertaking, and conquer the land. Captain Almagro went 
in the ships. Many persons had written to the Governor 
entreating him to order the crews to return to Panama, 
saying that it was impossible to endure more hardships than 
they had suffered during the last three years.* The Gover- 
nor ordered that all those who wished to go to Panama 

' Atacames, on the coast of modern Ecuador. 

2 The modern Atacames. 

2 In the bay of Tumaco, just on the modern frontier dividing New 
Granada from Ecuador. It had already been discovered by the Pilot 

♦ See Herrera, Dec. iii, lib. x, cap. 3 ; Garcilasso de la Vega^ Pt. n ; 
and Cieza de Leon, cap. cxlx. 


might do so, while those who desired to continue the dis- 
coveries were at liberty to remain. Sixteen men stayed 
with Pizarro/ and all the rest went back in the ships to 

* Thus simply does Pizarro's Secretary tell the story of this famous 
resolution. A ship was sent from Panama, by the Governor, under the 
command of an officer named Tafur, to take back those who wished to 
return ; while those who chose to remain with Pizarro were allowed to 
do so. Garcilasso says that, when Pizarro saw his men electing to re- 
turn in the ship, he drew his sword and made a long line on the ground 
with the point. Then, turning to his men, he said: "Gentlemen! This 
line signifies labour, hunger, thirst, fatigue, wounds, sickness, and every 
other kind of danger that must be encountered in this conquest, until 
life is ended. Let those who have the courage to meet and overcome the 
dangers of this heroic achievement cross the line in token of their reso- 
lution and as a testimony that they will be my faithful companions. 
And let those who feel unworthy of such daring return to Panama ; for 
I do not wish to put force upon any man. I trust in God that, for his 
greater honour and glory, his eternal Majesty will help those who re- 
main with me, though they be few, and that we shall not feel the want 
of those who forsake us." On hearing this speech the Spaniards began 
to go on board with all speed, lest anything should happen to detain 

Herrera tells the story differently. He says that Tafur stationed him- 
self in one part of the vessel and, drawing a line, placed Pizarro and the 
soldiers on the other side of it. He then told those who wished to return 
to Panama to come over to him, and those who would remain to stay on 
Pizarro's side of the line. 

Of these two accounts, that of Garcilasso is far more likely to be true; 
for it is very improbable that they would all have embarked before the 
election was made. It would naturally be made on the beach before 
they went on board. 

The authorities also differ as to the number of men who crossed the 
line and remained with Pizarro. Cieza de Leon, Gomara, Herrera, and 
Garcilasso say there were thirteen; Zarate gives the number at twelve; 
Xeres at sixteen. In the Capitulation for the Conquest of Peru, made 
by Francisco Pizarro with Queen Juana on July 26th, 1529, there is 
the following paragraph : "Remembering the great services that were 
performed in the said discovery by Bartolome Ruiz, Cristoval de Peralta, 
Pedro de Candia, Domingo de Soria Luce, Nicolas de Ribera, Francisco 
de Cuellar, Alonzo de Molina, Pedro Alcon, Garcia de Jerez, Anton de 
Carrion, Alonzo Bricefio, Martin de Paz, and Juan de la Torre ; and 
because you have besought and prayed for the favour, it is our will and 
pleasure to grant it, as by these presents we do grant to such of them as 


Panama. The Captain Pizarro was on that island for live 
months, when one of the ships returned, in which he con- 
tinued the discoveries for a hundred leagues further down 
the coast. They found many villages, and great riches ; 

are not Hidalgos, that they shall be Hidalgos acknowledged in those 
parts, and that in all our Indies they shall enjoy rank and immunities 
and such other privileges as belong to acknowledged Hidalgos, and to 
those who now are Hidalgos we grant knighthood of gilt spurs." 

It has always been supposed that these were the men who crossed the 
line, and hence their number has been placed at thirteen. But it is not 
asserted in the Capitulation that the men whose names are given in it 
were those who crossed the linci, and it might be that Pizarro, in asking 
favours for his most faithful companions, on the one hand omitted one 
or more of those who crossed the line, and on the other included some 
who did not take part in that transaction, but who joined him after- 
wards. Herrera gives the names of the thirteen in the Capitulation, 
and says that one was a Mulatto. Zarate gives nine names, all of which 
are in the above paragraph of the Capitulation except one, Alonzo de 
Truxillo. Zarate's nine are — I'edro de Candia, Bartolome Ruiz, Nicolas 
de Ivibera, .luan de la Torre, Alonzo Bricerio, Cristoval de Peralta, 
Alonzo de Truxillo, Francisco de Cuollar, and Alonzo de Molina. Bal- 
boa adds two more, Juan Koldan and Bias de Atienza. Garcilasso gives 
yet two more, whom he knew personally. He says that the correct name 
of Zarate's Alonzo de Truxillo was Diego de Truxillo ; that there were 
two Riberas, one the Nicolas of the Capitulation, and the other Geronimo 
or Alonzo, he is not certain which, whom he knew personally ; and that 
Francisco Rodriguez de Villafuerte, a citizen of Cuzco, whom lie also 
knew personally, was the first to walk across the line. 

In these conflicting ILsts, the names of Ruiz, Candia, Peralta, Bricei'iO, 
Ribera, Torre, Cuellar, and Molina, are those on which all are agreed. 
The Capitulation makes up the thirteen with Soria Luce, Alcon, .Jerez, 
Carrion, and Paz ; which five names Zarate and Garcilasso omit. 
Zarate axlds Truxillo. Gareila.sso gives him also, and adds another 
Ribera and Villa-Fuerte. Balboa adds Roldan and Atienza. 

Xeres had access to the best information, and I believe his number of 
sixteen to be correct; including the Pilot Ruiz, who returned to Panama 
to obtain another vessel. The three additional names of Zarate and 
Garcilaaso may be supposed to have been omitted in the Capitulation, 
either intentionally by Pizarro for some reason of his own, or accidentally. 
The correct ILst of sixteen will then stand as follows: [c. before a name 
meaning that it occurs in the Capitulation and Herrera; z. that it is 
given by Zarate; and c. by Garcilasso.] The two additional names of 


and they brought away more specimens of gold, silver, and 
cloths than had been found before, which were presented by 
the natives. The Captain returned because the time granted 

Balboa are no doubt inserted by mistake; but not so those of Garcilasso; 
for he knew the men personally. 

(c. z. B. G.) 1. Bartolome Ruiz, of Moguer, the Pilot. 

(c. z. B. G.) 2. Pedro de Candia, a Greek. He commanded Pizarro's 
artillery, consisting of two falconets ; and was an able and ex- 
perienced officer. After Pizarro's death he joined the younger 
Abnagro, who killed him on suspicion of treachery at the battle 
of Chupas. He left a half-caste son, who was at school with 
GarcUasso at Cuzco. 

(c. z. G.) 3. Cristoval de Peralta, a native of Baeza. He was one of 
the first twelv^ citizens of Lima, when that city was founded by 
Pizarro in 1535r. 

(c. z. B. G.) 4. Alonzo Briceno, a native of Benavente. He was at 
the division of Atahualpa's ransom, and received the share of a 
cavalry captain. 

(c, z. B. G.) 5. Nicolas de Ribera, the Treasurer, was one of the first 
twelve citizens of Lima, when Pizarro founded that city on January 
18th, 1535. He passed through all the stormy period of the civil 
wars in Peru. He deserted from Gonzalo Pizarro to Gasca, and 
was afterwards Captain of the Guard of the Royal Seal. He 
eventually settled near Cuzco, and left children to inherit his 

(c. z. B. G.) 6. Juan de la Torre was a staunch adherent of Gonzalo 
Pizarro in after years, to whom he deserted when serving under 
the ill-fated Viceroy Blasco Nuiiez de Vela. He carried his 
ferocious enmity to the Viceroy so far as to insult his dead body, 
and, pulling the hairs out of his beard, stuck them in his hat- 
band. He married the daughter of an Indian chief near Puerto 
Viejo, and acquired great wealth. He was captain of arquebusiers 
for Gonzalo Pizarro until 1548, and after the battle of Sacsa- 
huana he was hanged by order of La Gasca. 

(c. z. G.) 7. Francisco de Cuellar, a native of Cuellar. Nothing 
more is known of him. 

(c. z. G.) 8. Alonzo de Molina, a native of Ubeda. He afterwards 
landed at Tumbez, where it was arranged that he should remain 
until Pizarro's return ; but he died in the interval. 

(c.) 9. Domingo de Soria Luce. Nothing more is known of him. 

(c.) 10. Pedro Alcon. He afterwards landed on the coast of Peru, 
fell in love with a Peruvian lady, and refused to come on board 
again. So the Pilot Ruiz was obliged to knock him down with 


by the Governor had expired, and the last day of the period 
had been reached, when he entered the port of Panama.^ 

The two Captains were so ruined that they could no longer 
prosecute their undertaking, owing a large sum of pesos de 
oro. The Captain Francisco Pizarro was only able to bor- 
row a little more than a. thousand castellanos'^ among his 
friends, with which sura he went to Castillo, and gave an 

an oar, and he was put in irons on the lower deck. Nothing 
more is known of him. 
(c.) 11. Garcia de Jerez (or Jar en). He appears to have made a 
statement on the subject of the heroism of Pizarro and his com- 
panions at Panama on August 3rd, 1529. {Doc. Ined.^ tom. xxvi, 
p. 260 ; quoted by Helps^ iii, p. 4'46.) 
(c.) 12. Anton de Carrion. Nothin|;, further is known of him. 
(c.) 13. Martin de Paz. Nothing further is known of him. 
(z. G.) 14. Diego de Truxillo {Alonzo, according to Zarate). He 
was afterwards personally known to Garcilasso at Cuzco. Diego 
de Truxillo appears to have written an account of the discovery 
of Peru, which is still in manuscript. " Didacus de Truxillo. 
lielacion de la tierra que descubrid con Dom Francisco Pizarro 
en el Peru.'''' {Antonio, ii, 645.) Antonio quotes from the '■'■Bib- 
liotheca Indica''' of Leon Pinelo. 
(g.) 15. Geromino or Alonzo Ribera. He was settled at Lima, where 

he had children. 
(g.) 16. Francisco Rodriquez de Villa-Fuerte^ the first to cross the 
line. Afterwards a citizen of Cuzco, having been present at the 
siege by Ynca Manco, and at the battle of Las Salinas. Garci- 
lasso knew him, and once rode with him from Cuzco to Quispi- 
cancha, when he recounted many reminiscences of his stirring 
life. He was still living at Cuzco in 1560, a rich and influential 
* The Governor of Panama allowed one vessel to go, under the com- 
mand of the Pilot Ruiz, with positive orders to return in six months. 
Pizarro sailed in her from the isle of Gorgona, and came to the gulf of 
Guayaquil, after a voyage of twenty days. He landed on the island of 
Santa Clara or Muerto, and then stood across to the town of Tumbez. 
He then explored the Peruvian coast as far as the river of Santa. See 
the note in my translation of Cieza de Leon., p. 420. Pizarro took two 
Peruvians from Tumbez, who became interpreters, but very bad ones, 
as they spoke execrable Spanish and worse Quichua. One was named 
Filipillo by the Spaniards, the other Martinillo. 
' £400. 


account to his Majesty of the great and signal services he 
had performed ; in reward for which he was granted the 
government and command of that land/ and the habit of 
Santiago ; certain magisterial powers, and aids towards the 
coast were given by his Majesty as Emperor and King, who 
ever shows favour to those who work in his royal service, 
as he always has done. For this cause others have been 
animated with zeal to spend their estates in his royal ser- 
vice, discovering in that South Sea, and over all the ocean, 
lands and provinces so distant from these kingdoms of 

When the Adelantado Francisco Pizarro was nominated 
by his Majesty, he sailed from the port of San Lucar^ with 
a fleet,^ and with a fair wind and without accident, arrived 
at the port of Nombre de Dios. Thence he went, with his 
forces, to the city of Panama, where he encountered many 
difficulties and obstructions intended to prevent him from 
going to people the land he had discovered, according to his 
Majesty's orders. But he resolutely continued his prepara- 
tions, and sailed from Panama with as many people as he 
could collect, being a hundred and eighty men, with thirty- 
seven horses, in three ships.^ His voyage was so success- 
ful that in thirteen days he arrived at the bay of San Mateo, 
though, when they began this enterprise, they could never 

' The Capitulation made by Francisco Pizarro with Queen Juana, is 
dated at Toledo, on July 26th, 1529. The text is given by Quintana in 
his Vidas, ■p. 176, and by Prescott in an Appendix, ii, p. 447. The chief 
right of discovery and conquest of the country for two hundred leagues 
south of the island of Santiago or Puna, which was called New Castille, 
was secured to Pizarro, with the title of Governor for life. Almagro 
was made Commander of Tumbez, Ruiz received the title of Grand 
Pilot of the Southern Ocean, and Candia was made Captain of Artillery. 
Pizarro received the habit of Santiago. ^ In January 1630. 

1 He took out with him four brothers: Hernando, the eldest, and only 
legitimate son of his father; Gonzalo and Juan, like Francisco himself, 
illegitimate sons; and Francisco Martin de Alcantara, a son of his mother 
but not of his father. - In January 1531. 


reach it during more than two years. There he landed the 
people and horses, and they marched along the shore, find- 
ing all the inhabitants in arms against them. They con- 
tinued their march until they reached a large village called 
Coaque, which they entered, for the inhabitants had not 
risen, as in the other villages. There they took fifteen thou- 
sand pesos^ de oro, fifteen hundred marcs'^ of silver, and many 
emeralds which were not then known as, nor held to be, 
precious stones. Hence the Spaniards obtained them from 
the Indians for cloths and other things. In this village 
they took the Cacique or Lord of the place, with some 
of his people, and they found much cloth of difi^erent kinds, 
and abundant supplies, sufficient to maintain the Spaniards 
for three or four years. 

The Governor despatched the three ships from Coaque 
to the city of Panama and to Nicaragua, to get more men 
and horses, in order to secure the conquest and settling of 
the land. The Governor remained there with his people, 
resting for some days until two of the ships returned from 
Panama with twenty-six horsemen and thirty foot soldiers. 
On their arrival the Governor set out, with the horse and 
foot, marching along the sea coast, which was well peopled, 
and placing all the villages under the dominion of his 
Majesty ; for their lords, with one accord, came out into the 
roads to receive the Governor, without making any opposi- 
tion. The Governor, far from doing them any harm or 
showing any anger, received them all lovingly, and they 
were taught some things touching our holy Catholic Faith, 
by the monks who accompanied the expedition. Thus the 
Governor advanced with the Spaniards, until they reached 
an island called Puna, to which the Spaniards gave the 
name of Santiago.^ It is two leagues from the main land ; 

* A peio of gold was worth a casteUano or about eight shillings. 

* A marc was eight ounces. 

* In the gulf of Guayaquil. Temaux Compans, in a note, makes the 


and, being populous, and rich, and yielding abundant sup- 
plies, the Governor crossed over to it in two ships, and in 
balsas^ of wood which the Indians make, on which the 
horses were carried over. 

The Governor was received on this island by the Lord 
with much joy, and many presents of provisions, which were 
brought out on the road, together with musical instruments 
that the natives use for their recreation. This island is 
fifteen leagues round. It is fertile and populous, and con- 
tains many villages, ruled by seven chiefs, one of whom is 
lord over the others. This chief gave a quantity of gold 
and silver to the Governor of his own free will, and, as it 
was winter, the Governor and his people rested on that 
island ; for he could not have advanced in the rains without 
serious detriment. Several of those who were sick recovered 
before the rainy season was over. The natural inclination 
of the Indians is not to obey or serve any foreigner, unless 
they are obliged to do so by force. This Cacique had peace- 
fully lived with the Governor, and had become a vassal of 
his Majesty; yet it became known, through the interpreters 
of the Governor, that he had assembled all his warriors, and 
that for many days they had been employed in making arms. 
This was also observed with their own eyes by the Spaniards, 
in the village where they and the Cacique were lodged. 
Many armed Indians were found in the house of the Cacique 

extraordinary mistake of turning the native name of Puna into Pugna, 
which he translates into " Fight", and identifying it with the island of 
Gorgona. Puna is three hundred and seventy miles south of Gorgona, 
and far more by the course a vessel must take round the coast. See an 
account of the conquest of the island of Puna by the Yncas, in my 
translation of Garcilasso de la Vega, ii, p. 429. 

Zarate thus describes these balsas (lib. i, cap. vi, p. 6) : " They are 
made of long light poles fastened across two other poles. Those on ;he 
top are always an odd number, generally five, and sometimes seven or 
nine : the centre poles being longer than the others, where the rower 
sits. Thus the shape of the balsa is like that of a hand stretched out, 


and in the other houses, waiting until all the islanders were 
assembled before they attacked the Christians in the follow- 
ing night. When the Governor had received this informa- 
tion from his secret spies, he ordered the Cacique, his three 
sons, and other principal men to be taken prisoners, and 
the Spaniards attacked the armed Indians and killed seve- 
ral, while the others fled, abandoning the village. The 
house of the Cacique and some others were pillaged, some 
gold and silver and much cloth being found in them. During 
that night very careful watch was kept in the camp of the 
Christians, their number being sixty horse and a hundred 
foot. Before next day dawned they heard warlike cries, 
and soon a great number of Indians was seen to approach, 
all the men being armed and plajang warlike instruments. 
They advanced in several bodies, and attacked the Christian 
camp. By this time it was daylight, and the Governor 
ordered his men to assault the enemy with vigour. Some 
Christians and horses were wounded ; but, as our Lord 
favours and succours those who are engaged in his service, 
the Indians were defeated, and turned their backs. The 
horse-soldiers followed them, wounding and killing several. 
The Christians returned to the camp, because the horses 
were tired, the pursuit having continued from morning 
until noon. 

On a following day the Governor sent his troops in detach- 
ments over the island to search for their enemies, and make 
war upon them, which they continued to do during tw^ity, 
days; so that the Indians were well punished. Three prin- 
cipal men, who were prisoners with the chief, were accused 
by him of having advised and arranged the treason, while 
he himself did not wish to join it but was unable to control 

with the length of the fingers diminishing from the centre. On the 
top some boards are fixed, to prevent the men from getting wet. There 
are balsas which will hold fifty men. They are navigated with a sail 
and oars." 


these leaders. The Governor executed judgment upon 
them, burning some, and beheading the others. 

By reason of the insurrection and treason of the Cacique 
and Indians of the island of Santiago, war was made upon 
them until they abandoned their island and crossed over to 
the main land. But, seeing that the island was rich and 
fertile, the Governor set the Cacique at liberty that he might 
gather his scattered people together and re-settle the island, 
so that it might not be ruined. The Cacique was content 
to serve his Majesty henceforward, by reason of the kind 
treatment he received in prison. The Governor then de- 
parted with as many Spaniards and horses as his three ships 
would hold, for the town of Tumbez,''' leaving behind some 
troops with a captain, for whom the ships were to return.^ 
But, in order that the passage might be effected more 
quickly, the Governor caused the Cacique to provide balsas, 
in which three Christians went with a supply of cloths to 
Tumbez. In three days the ships reached the coast at 
Tumbez, and when the Governor landed, he found that the 
inhabitants were in arms. He learnt from some captive 
Indians that the people had risen and seized the Christians 
and cloths that came in the balsas.^ As soon as the people 
and horses were landed, the Governor ordered the ships to 
return for those who were left on the island. He and his 
troops lodged in the village of the Cacique, in two strong 
houses built like a fortress. The Governor then ordered 
the Spaniards to explore the country, and to ascend a river 

' Two vessels, with a reinforcement commanded by Hernando de 
Soto, arrived while Pizarro was on the island of Puna. 

8 This was Sebastian de Belalcazar, the future conqueror of Quito, 
and Governor of Popayan. 

" There were four balsas. In one were Francisco Martin de Alcan- 
tara, Juan Pizarro, and Alonzo de Mena; in another, Hernando de Soto; 
in the third, Alonzo de Toro ; and in the fourth, Hurtado, a brother of 
Alonzo de Toro, and a soldier. The three in the latter were seized by 
the Indians and murdered. — Herrera. 


whicli flows between those villages,, tliat they might get 
tidings of the three Christians who were sent in the balsas; 
in the hope of finding them before they were killed by the 
Indians. But^ although the Spaniards used much diligence 
in exploring the land from the first hour that they came on 
shore^ they could neither hear nor see anything of the three 
Christians. The Spaniards put all the provisions they could 
collect in two balsas, and they captured some Indians, from 
among whom the Governor sent messengers to the Cacique/ 
and to some principal chiefs, requiring them, on the part 
of his Majesty, to make peace and deliver up the three 
Christians alive, without having injured them ; in which case 
they would be received as vassals of his Majesty, although 
they had been transgressors. If they refused, he threatened 
to make war upon them with fire and sword, until they were 

Some days elapsed, and the Indians not only kept away, 
but showed signs of pride and made forts on the other side 
of the river, which had increased in size and could not be 
forded. They invited the Spaniards to come across, and 
told them that they had already killed their three com- 

As soon as all the men had arrived, who were left on the 
island, the Governor ordered a great raft of wood to be 
made, for the easier passage of the river. He sent forty 
horse and eighty foot across with a captain, and they con- 
tinued to be ferried over on the raft from morning until even- 
ing. The captain had orders to make war upon the Indians, 
because they were rebels and had slain the Christians ; and, 
after they had sufiered such punishment as their offence 
deserved, they were to be received peacefully in accordance 
with the commands of his Majesty. So the captain set out 
with his troops, and after he had crossed the river, he took 

" The name of the Chief of Tumbez was Chillemasa, according to 
Hcrrera. But see next page. 


guides witli him, and marcted right towards the place where 
the Indians were encamped. At dawn he attacked the 
camp where they lodged, and continued the pursuit all that 
day, killing and wounding them, and making prisoners of all 
he could overtake. Towards night the Christians assembled 
at a village. Next morning the Spaniards marched in de- 
tachments in search of their enemies, and they again re- 
ceived punishment. When the captain saw that the harm 
they had received was sufficient, he sent messengers to pro- 
pose terms of peace to the chief. The chief of the province, 
which is called Quillimasa, sent one of his principal men 
back with the messengers, who made this reply — that " by 
reason of the great fear he had of the Spaniards the chief 
had not come himself, but that if he was assured that he 
would not be killed, he would come peacefully." The cap- 
tain answered the messenger that "he would not be received 
badly, nor would he be injured, that he might come without 
fear as the Governor would receive him as a vassal of his 
Majesty, and would pardon the fault he had committed." 
With this assurance, though in great terror, the chief, with 
some principal men, came, and the captain received them 
joyfully, saying that " no harm would be done to those who 
came peacefully, though they had been in rebellion ; that as 
he had come, no more war would be made ; and that the 
people might return to their villages." Afterwards he or- 
dered the supplies he had found to be taken across the 
river, and he, with his Spaniards, returned to the place 
where he had left the Governor, taking the chief and the 
principal Indians with him. He reported what had taken 
place to the Governor, who gave thanks to our Lord for 
having granted a victory, without any Christian being 
wounded. He then told them to seek rest. The Governor 
asked the chief: — "Why he, who had been so well treated, 
had risen and killed the Christians ; when many of his 
people had been restored to him, whom the Cacique of the 


Island had captured f and when the captains who had burnt 
his villages had been given up to him to receive punishment, 
in the belief that he was faithful, and would be grateful for 
these benefits V The Cacique answered — " I knew that 
certain of my principal men brought the three Christians in 
the balsas, and killed them, but I had no concern in it, 
though I feared that the blame would be put upon me." 
The Governor replied — " Let those principal men be brought 
to me, and send the people back to their villages." The 
Cacique then sent for the people and for the principal men, 
and said that he could not see those who had killed the 
Christians, because they had left the country. After the 
Governor had been there for some days, he saw that the 
Indian murderers could not be secured, and that the town 
of Tumbez was destroyed. It seemed to have been an im- 
portant place, judging from some edifices it contained. 
Among them were two houses, one of which was surrounded 
by two circuits of earthen wall. It had open courts and 
rooms, and doors for defence, and was a good fortress 
against Indians. The natives say that these edifices were 
abandoned by reason of a great pestilence, and by reason of 
the war that was waged by the Cacique of the island.^ As 
there were no Indians in this district except those who were 
subject to the above-mentioned chief, the Governor resolved 
to continue his march with some cavalry and foot soldiers, 
in search of another more populous province, with a view to 
sending people to settle in the town of Tumbez. So he set 
out, leaving a Lieutenant with the Christians who remained 
in charge of the stores ;^ and the Cacique remained at peace, 
assembling the people in the villages. 

2 Pizarro found two natives of Tumbez in the island of Puna. He 
had set them at liberty, in the expectation that they would be useful to 
him in their own land. — Gomara^ Hist, de las Indias, cap. cxii. 

' For an account of Tumbez and its inhabitants, see my translation 
of Cieza de Leon., p. 212. 

* The Contador Antonio Navarro and the Treasurer Alonzo Riquelme 
remained behind at Tumbez. 


On the first day that the Governor departed from Tumbez, 
which was the 16th day of May, 1532, he arrived at a small 
village, and, on the third day he reached a village among 
hills, and the Cacique, who was Lord of that village, was 
called Juan. Here they rested for three days, and in three 
more days they came to the banks of a river, which were 
well peopled, and yielded abundance of provisions of the 
country, and flocks of sheep.^ The road is all made by 
hand, broad and well built, and, in some bad places, it is 
paved. Having arrived at the river, which is called Turi- 
carami,^ he formed his camp in a large village called Pue- 
chio,7 and all the chiefs who lived on the lower course of the 
river came to the Governor to make their peace, while the 
inhabitants of the village came out to meet him. The 
Governor received them with much love, and informed them 
of the orders of his Majesty that they should know and be 
obedient to the church and to his Majesty. When they 
understood what was said, through interpreters, they replied 
that they desired to be his vassals, and that they would re- 
ceive the Governor with the solemnity that might be re- 
quired ; so they served him and brought him provisions. 
Before reaching this place, at the distance of a flight from a 
cross-bow, there is a large place with a fortress surrounded 
by a wall, and many rooms inside, where the Christians 
lodged, that the Indians might not be affronted. On this occa- 
sion, as on all others when the Indians submitted peacefully, 
the Governor ordered^ under severe penalties, '^Hhat no 
harm should be done to them either in person or goods, 
that none of their provisions should be taken, beyond those 
which they chose to give for the sustenance of the Christians, 
and he declared that those who acted differently should be 

* So the first conquerors called the llamas and alpacas. 
» This is the river Chira. 

' See my translation of Cieza de Leon, p. 213. He calls the place 
Pocheos. Garcilasso de la Vega has Puchiu, ii, p. 424. 


punislied ;" for every day the Indians brought in all the 
supplies that were wanted, as well as fodder for the horses, 
and they did all the service that was required of them. 

The Governor, seeing that the banks of that river were 
fertile and well peopled, ordered search to be made in the 
neighbourhood for a well sheltered port, and a very good one 
was found on the sea-coast, near the valley ; and Caciques 
or Lords of many vassals were found, in positions which 
were convenient for them to come and do service on the 
banks of the river. The Governor went to visit all these 
villages, and the district appeared to him to be suitable for 
a Spanish settlement. In order to comply with the com- 
mands of his Majesty, and that the natives might come to 
be converted and to receive a knowledge of our Holy 
Catholic Faith, he sent a messenger to the Spaniards who 
had been left at Tumbez, ordering them to come that, with 
the consent of all, a settlement might be formed on a site 
most convenient for his Majesty's service, and for the good 
of the natives. After he had sent this messenger, it oc- 
curred to him that delay might arise unless a person went, 
of whom the Caciques and Indians of Tumbez were in awe, 
so that they might assist in the march of the Spaniards. 
So he sent his brother Hernando Pizarro, Captain General. 
Afterwards the Governor learnt that certain chiefs in the 
hills would not submit, although they had received the 
orders of his Majesty, so he sent a Captain with twenty-five 
horse and foot, to reduce them to the service of his Majesty. 
Finding that they had abandoned their villages, the Captain 
sent to require them to come in peacefully, but they came 
prepared for war, and the Captain came out against them. 
In a short time many were killed and wounded, and they 
were defeated. The Captain once more demanded that they 
should submit, threatening that, if they refused, he would 
destroy them. So they submitted, and the Captain received 
them, and leaving all that province at peace, he returned to 


the place where the Governor remained^ bringing the chiefs 
with him. The Governor received them very kindly, and 
ordered them to return to their villages, and to bring back 
their people. The Captain said that he had found mines 
of fine gold in the hills round the villages of these chiefs, 
and that the inhabitants collected it. He brought speci- 
mens, and added that the mines were twenty leagues from 
that town. 

The Captain who went to Tumbez for the people, returned 
with them in thirty days. Some of them came by sea, with 
the stores, in a ship, in a barque, and in balsas. These 
ships had come from Panama with merchandise, and brought 
no troops, for the Captain Diego de Almagro remained 
there, preparing a fleet, in which to come and form a settle- 
ment for himself. As soon as the Governor heard that the 
ships had arrived and landed the stores, he set out from the 
village of Puechio, with some troops, to descend the river. 
On reaching a place, where dwelt a chief named Lachira, he 
found certain Christians who had landed. They complamed 
to the Governor that the chief had ill-treated them, and that 
fear had prevented them from sleeping during the previous 
night, because they saw the Indians marching about under 

The Governor made inquiries, and found that the chief of 
Lachira and his principal men, with another chief, named Al- 
motaxe,^ had formed a conspiracy to kill the Christians on thr 
very day that the Governor arrived. Having considered 
the information, the Governor sent secretly to have the chief 
Almotaxe and the principal men seized, while he himself 
apprehended the chief of Lachira and some of his leading 
men, who confessed their crime. Then he ordered justice 
to be executed, burning the Cacique of Almotaxe and his 
head men, some Indians, and all the principal men of 

^ I suspect this should be Amotape, a place on the river Chira, where 
there are now some fine cotton estates. 


Lachira. He did not execute justice upon the chief of 
Lachira, because his fault did not appear to be so great, and 
because, if he was killed, both the provinces would remain 
without a head, and would be lost. He was told that in 
future he must be true, and that the first treason would be 
his ruin. He was to govern all his own people, and also 
those of Almotaxe, until a boy, the heir of the lordship of 
Almotaxe, reached an age when he could be entrusted with 
the government. 

This severity filled all the surrounding country with fear, 
insomuch that a confederacy which was said to have been 
formed to attack the Spaniards was dissolved; and from 
henceforth the Indians served better, and with more fear 
than before. Having executed this justice, and collected 
the people and stores which came from Tumbez, the 
Governor viewed the district, in concert with the Reverend 
Father Friar Vicente de Valverde, a monk of the order of 
San Domingo, and with the officers of his Majesty. In 
this region it was found that all necessaries for a place 
where Spaniards might settle were combined, that the 
natives were able to work without being overcome with 
fatigue, and that attention could be given to their conversion 
in accordance with the desire of his Majesty. The Governor, 
with the concurrence of his officers, therefore, established 
and founded a town in the name of his Majesty. Near the 
banks of the river, and six leagues from the sea port, there 
was a chief, the lord of a village, named Tangarara, to which 
the Spaniards gave the name of San Miguel.^ In order that 
the ships which had come from Panama might receive no 
loss by delaying their return voyage, the Governor, with the 
concurrence of the officers of his Majesty, ordered certain 
gold, which had been presented by these chiefs and those of 

^ At first the city was built at Tangarara, in the Chira valley, but 
the site was abandoned on account of its unhealthiness. It is now in 
the valley of Piura. See my translation of Cieza de Leon, p. 213, 


Tumbez, to be melted. A fiftli was set apart as belonging 
to his Majesty. The rest^ belonging to the company^ was 
borrowed by the Governor from his troops, to be paid with 
the first gold they should obtain ; and with this gold the fleet 
was despatched, the freight was paid, and the merchants 
sent off their goods, and so they departed. The Governor 
sent to advise the Captain Almagro^ his comrade, how much 
God and his Majesty would be injured if he attempted to 
form a new settlpment. Having despatched the ships, the 
Governor divided the land amongst those who settled in the 
new town, for, without aid of the natives, they could neither 
have maintained nor peopled it. If the Caciques had been 
made to serve, without being assigned to persons who 
would be responsible, the natives would have suffered much 
injury ; for when the Spaniards know the Indians who are 
assigned to them, they treat them well, and take care of 
them. Influenced by these considerations, and with the 
approval of the monk and of officers, who thought that such 
a measure would be for the service of God and the good of 
the natives, the Governor assigned the Caciques and Indians 
to the settlers in this town, that they might assist in their 
maintenance, and that the Christians might teach them our 
holy Faith, in obedience to the orders of his Majesty that 
measures should be taken which were best for the service of 
God, of himself, and for the good of the country and of the 
natives. Alcaldes, Regidores, and other public officers were 
elected, who were given instructions by which they were to 
be guided. 

The Governor received intelligence that the way to 
Chincha and Cuzco passed through very populous districts, 
which were rich and fertile, and that there was an inhabited 
valley called Caxamalca,^ ten or twelve days' journey from 
his settlement, where Atabaliba^ resided, who was the 

1 Cassa-marca ; from cassa bdow and marca a village. 
* Atahuallpa. 


greatest lord among these natives, wliom they all obeyed, 
and who had conquered lands far distant from the country 
of his birth. When he came to the province of Caxamalca, 
he found it to be so rich and pleasant that he settled there, 
and continued to conquer other lands from thence. This 
lord is held in so much dread that the natives of the valley 
are not so reconciled to the service of his Majesty as would 
otherwise be the case, but they rather favour Atabaliba and 
say that they acknowledge him as their lord and no other, 
and that a small detachment from his army would sufl&ce to 
kill all the Christians. For the Indians excite great terror by 
their accustomed cruelty. The Governor resolved to march 
in search of Atabaliba, to reduce him to the service of his 
Majesty, and to pacify the surrounding provinces. For 
when he was once conquered the rest would soon be reduced 
to submission. 

The Governor departed from the city of San Miguel,^ in 
search of Atabaliba, on the 24th of September, 1532, and 
on the first day his troops crossed the river on two rafts, 
the horses swimming. That night he slept at a village on 
the other side of the river. After three more days he arrived 
at the valley of Piura, and came to a fortress belonging to 
a chief, where they met a Captain with some Spaniards, 
who had been sent to subdue that chief, in order to 
relieve the Chief of San Miguel. The Governor remained 
there for ten days, making preparations for the march. On 
mustering the Christians he intended to take with him, he 
found he had sixty-seven horse and one hundred and ten 
foot soldiers, three of them with guns, and some with cross- 
bows. The Lieutenant in charge of San Miguel wrote to 
report that few Christians remained there, so the Governor 
proclaimed that " those who wished to return and settle in 
the town of San Miguel would have Indians assigned to 

3 Antonio Navarro, the Accountant, was left in command at San 
Miguel ; and the Royal Treasurer Riquelme remained with him. 


maintain them^ like the other settlers who remained there, 
and that he would proceed with his conquest with those 
that were left, whether they were few or many." Five 
horsemen and four foot soldiers returned; so that, with 
these, there were fifty-five settlers, besides ten or twelve 
others who remained by their own wish, without citizenship. 
The Governor then mustered sixty-two horsemen and one 
hundred and two foot soldiers. He ordered that arms 
should be prepared for those who had none, both for their 
persons and horses, and he re-organised the cross-bow men, 
completing their number to twenty, and appointing a captain 
to take charge of them. 

Having made all necessary arrangements, he set out with 
his troops, and, after marching until noon, he arrived at a 
large court, surrounded by walls, belonging to a chief named 
Pabor. The Governor and his troops lodged there. He 
learnt that this chief had been ruined, for that the old Cuzco, 
father of Atabaliba, had destroyed twenty villages and killed 
their inhabitants. But, in spite of this injury, the chief had 
many vassals, and bordering on his territory was that of his 
brother, who was as great a lord as himself. These natives 
submitted peacefully, and were assigned to the city of San 
Miguel. This settlement, and that of Piura, are in very 
fertile level valleys. The Governor here obtained tidings 
of the neighbouring chiefs, and of the road to Caxamalca, 
and he was informed that further on there was a great town, 
called Caxas, in which there was a garrison of Atabaliba, 
waiting for the Christians, in case they should come that 
way. This being known to the Governor, he sent a Captain* 
secretly, with horse and foot, to the town of Caxas,^ with 
orders that, if the enemy wished to oppose their passage 
with violence, he was to strive to inspire them with peaceful 

* This was Hernando de Soto. 

> Across the Andes, on the Marauon watershed. See my translation 
of Cieza de Leon, p. 209. 


feelings, and to bring them into the service of his Majesty. 
On that day the Captain departed. The next day the 
Governor set out, and reached a town called Qaran,^ where 
he waited for the Captain who had gone to Caxas. The 
chief of the town brought the Governor supplies of sheep 
and other things, to a fortress at which the Governor arrived 
at noon. Next day he left the fortress and came to the 
town of (^aran, where he ordered his camp to be formed, to 
wait for the Captain who had gone to Caxas. After five 
days the Captain sent a messenger to the Governor, with 
news that he had succeeded. The Governor presently 
replied from the village where he was waiting, that, after he 
had completed his work, he should join him, and, on the 
road, visit and reduce another town near that of Caxas, 
called Gicabamba;'^ and that it was reported that the chief of 
Zaran was lord over rich villages, and of a fertile valley, 
which was assigned to the settlers of the city of San Miguel. 
During the eight days that the Governor was waiting for 
the Captain, the Spaniards were re-organised, and the horses 
were refreshed for the coming journey. When the Captain 
returned with his troops, he gave an account to the Governor 
of what he had seen in those villages. He said that it had 
taken him two days and one night to reach Caxas, without 
resting, except for meals. Even then they would not have 
arrived (though they had good guides) if they had not met 
some spies from the village, some of whom they captured, 
and from whom they obtained information. Having put his 
men in order, the Captain followed the road until he reached 
the village, and at the entrance he found a royal building, 
where there were traces of armed men. The village of 
Caxas is in a small valley surrounded by mountains. The 
people were in a commotion, but the Captain pacified them, 
and gave them to understand that he came, on the part 
of the Governor, to receive their submission as vassals of 
* Zaran, still in the Piura valley. ' Huanca-pampa. 


the Emperor. Then a chief came out and said that he was 
in the service of Atabaliba^ receiving tribute from these 
villages. He described the road to Caxamalca, and men- 
tioned the intention of Atabaliba to visit the Christians. 
He spoke of the city of Cuzco, thirty days' journey from 
CaxaSj which is a league round^ and the house of the Cacique 
is four cross-bow shots in length. There is also a hall, 
where is the dead body of old Cuzco/ the floor of which is 
plated with silver, and the roof and walls with gold and 
silver interwoven. He added that it was a year since the 
Cuzco,^ son of old Cuzco, lost those villages, when they 
were taken by his brother Atabaliba, who rebelled and con- 
quered the land, exacting great tribute, and daily perpetrat- 
ing cruelties. For they not only have to give their goods 
as tribute, but also their sons and daughters. The royal 
building was reported to belong to Atabaliba, who, a few 
days before, had gone hence, with a part of his army. They 
found a great and strong building in that town of Caxas, 
surrounded by a mud wall with doorways, in which there 
were many women spinning and weaving cloth for the army 
of Atabaliba ; and there were no men with them, except the 
porters who guarded them. At the entrance of the village 
there were certain Indians hung up by the feet ; and this 
chief stated that Atabaliba had ordered them to be killed, 
because one of them entered the house of the women to 
sleep with one ; who, with all the porters who consented to 
his entering the house, was hanged. 

As soon as this Captain had pacified the village of Caxas, 
he marched to Guacamba,^ which is distant one day's journey, 
and is larger than Caxas, containing finer edifices, and a 
fortress built entirely of cut stones, the larger stones being 
of five or six palmos, and so closely joined that there ap- 

8 Ynca Huayna Ccapac. ® Huascar Ynca. 

^ Huanca-pampa, on a river of the same name, flowing into the 


peared to be no mortar between them. There was a lofty- 
masonry platform, with two flights of stone steps, between 
two buildings. A small river flows through this town, and 
by that of Caxas, which supplies them with water, and over 
which they have bridges with very good pavements. A 
broad road, made by hands, connects these two towns ; and 
the same road traverses all that land from Cuzco to Quito, 
a distance of more than three hundred leagues.^ The road 
is level, and the part which traverses the mountains is very 
well made, being broad enough for six men on horseback to 
ride abreast* By the side of the road flow channels of 
water brought from a distance, at which the travellers can 
drink. At the end of each day's journey there is a house, 
like an inn, where those who go and come, can lodge. At 
the entrance to this road, from the town of Caxas, there 
was a house at the head of a bridge, where a guard was 
stationed to receive transit dues in kind, from those who 
came and went ; and no man could take a load out of the 
town without paying the toll. This was an ancient custom, 
and Atabaliba suspended it, in so far as it affected the things 
that were brought for his troops. No passenger could enter 
or depart with a load by any other road than that on which 
the guard was stationed, on pain of death. 

He also said that he found, in these two towns, two houses 
full of shoes, cakes of salt, a food like albondigas/ and other 

* "In the long day's journey from the syenitic rocks of Zaulaca to 
the valley of San Felipe "(rich in fossils, and situated at the foot of the 
icy Paramo of Yamoca) we were obliged to wade through the Rio de 
Guancabamba (which flows into the Amazons) no less than twenty- 
seven times, on account of the windings of the stream ; while we con- 
tinually saw near us, running in a straight line along the side of a steep 
precipice, the remains of the high built road of the Incas, with its Tam- 
bos." {Aspects of Mature, ii, p. 277.) Humboldt further mentions 
that the Guancabamba, in the lower part of its course, is made to serve 
dB a route for a swimming post to Jaen de Bracamoros. 

' Balls of forced meat chopped small, with eggs and spice. A Spanish 


stores for the use of the troops of Atabaliba. He added 
that these towns were well ruled, and that the people lived 
in an orderly manner. A principal Indian and some others 
came with the Captain. The Captain said that this Indian 
had come with presents for the Governor. This messenger 
said to the Governor that his lord Atabaliba had sent him 
from Caxamalca to bring the present, which consisted of 
two fountains made of stone, like fortresses, and used to 
drink out of, and two loads of dried geese, skinned and 
prepared to be powdered and used for fumigating ; for such 
is the custom of the lords of that land. The messenger* 
told the Governor that he had been instructed to say that 
Atabaliba desired to be his friend, and that he was waiting 
to receive him in peace at Caxamalca. The Governor re- 
ceived the present, and spoke to the messenger, saying 
that he rejoiced greatly at his arrival, being a messenger 
from Atabaliba, whom he desired to see by reason of the 
things that he had heard of him ; that, as he knew that 
Atabaliba was making war upon his enemies, he had re- 
solved to go and see him, and be his friend and brother, 
aiding him in his conquests with the Christians who accom- 
panied him. He ordered that food should be given to the 
messenger, and to those who came with him, and that they 
should have all that they needed and be well lodged as the 
ambassadors of so great a lord. After they were rested, he 
ordered them to be brought before him, and said that they 
were to do as they pleased, either to depart at once or to 
rest for another day. The messenger replied that he desired 

dish. Martinez Molino, the celebrated cook of Philip III, in his treatise 
on cookery published at Madrid in 1617, enumerates a great variety of 

* This was Titu Atauchi, the brother of Atahuallpa, according to 
Garcilasso. (Pt. ii, lib. i, cap. 17.) He brought many other presents: 
sheep, deer, birds, maize, dried fruits, honey, pepper, cloths, vases of 
gold and silver, emeralds, and bracelets called chipana. 


to return with the answer to his lord. The Governor then 
said — " Repeat what I have already told you, that I will not 
stop at any village on the road, that I may quickly arrive 
and see your lord/^ He gave the messenger a shirt, and 
other things from Castillo, to take with him. After the de- 
parture of the messenger, the Governor rested for another 
two days because the troops that had come from Caxas 
were fatigued with their journey. In this interval he wrote 
to the citizens of San Miguel and gave them an account of 
the land and of the news from Atabaliba; and he sent them 
the two vases in the form of fortresses, and cloth of the 
country from Caxas. It is wonderful how highly this cloth 
is prized in Spain for its workmanship. It is looked upon 
more as silk than as wool.^ The cloths are enriched with 
many patterns and figures in beaten gold, very well em- 
broidered. As soon as the Governor had despatched his 
messengers to the town of San Miguel, he set out, and 
marched for three days without finding a village or any 
water, except at one small spring where it could only be 
got at with difiiculty.^ At the end of three days he arrived 
at a large walled enclosure where no inhabitants were found. 
It proved to belong to the Lord of a village called Copiz, 
in an adjacent valley, and that fortress was abandoned be- 
cause there was no water. Next morning the Governor 
started very early, because it was a long march to the in- 
habited valley. At noon he reached a house with a sur- 
rounding wall, containing very good lodgings, where some 
Indians came out to receive him. But there were neither 
provisions nor water, so the Governor advanced two leagues 
further, to the village of the chief. Having arrived, he 
ordered that the troops should be lodged together, in a 
certain part of the village. He was informed by the prin- 

* Made from the soft vicufia fleeces. 

® He was crossing the vast sandy desert of Sechura. 


cipal Indian of the place, wliich was called Motux,'' that the 
chief was in Caxamalca, and that he had gone there with 
three hundred men of war. The Governor found there a 
Captain appointed by Atabaliba. The Spaniards rested at 
Motux for four days, and, during that time, the Governor 
saw some portion of the inhabited country belonging to the 
chief, which appeared to be extensive, and to include a 
fertile valley. All the villages between this place and the 
city of San Miguel are in valleys, as well as all those of 
which he had received information, as far as the foot of the 
mountains near Caxamalca. On this road all the people 
have the same manner of living. The women wear a long 
robe which reaches to the ground, like the dresses of 
women in Castille. The men have short shirts. These 
people are dirty. They eat flesh and fish all raw, and 
maize boiled and toasted. They have other filthy things 
in the way of sacrifices and mosques,^ which they hold in 
veneration, and they offer up to them the best of all that 
they have. Each month they sacrifice their own children, 
and with the blood they anoint the faces of the idols, and 
the doors of the mosques. They do this on the sepulchres 
of the dead, and the victims who are sacrificed, go willingly 
to their deaths, laughing, dancing, and singing. After they 
have drunk well, they themselves ask that their heads may 
be cut oS". They also sacrifice sheep. The mosques are 
diSerent from the other houses. They are surrounded by 
very well-built walls, in the highest part of the town. In 
Tumbez they wear the same clothes and perform the same 

' This is a misprint for Motupe, a rich and fertile valley. Lorente 
identifies it with Motupe. {Hist, del Peru., ii, p. 120.) Zarate gives the 
word correctly as Motupe, not Motux. (Zaraie, lib. ii, cap. iii, p. 20.) 
It is the Mutupi of Garcilasso de la Vega, ii, p. 424. 

^ Xeres always gives the name of mosques to the temples of the Peru- 
vians. The fathers of the Spanish conquerors had served in the cam- 
paign of Granada, and their minds were full of the things relating to 
the Moorish infidels. 


sacrifices as in these villages. They sow the crops in the 
level ground on the banks of the rivers^ distributing water 
through channels. They grow much maize, and other seeds 
and roots which they eat. In that land there is little rain. 
During two days the Governor marched through well- 
peopled valleys,^ sleeping at the end of each journey in 
houses surrounded by walls. The lords of the villages say 
that the old Cuzco^ lodged in these houses wjien he travelled 
by this road. The people of the country received the 
Governor in peace. On another day he travelled over a dry 
and sandy tract until he reached another well-peopled valley, 
through which a great and rapid river flowed.^ The river 
was much swollen, so the Governor passed the night on the 
hither side, and ordered a Captain to swim across it, with 
some others who knew how to swim, and to occupy the vil- 
lages on the other side, thus preventing any people from 
disturbing the passage. The Captain Hernando Pizarro 
swam across, and the people of a village on the other side 
received him in peace, and lodged him in a walled fortress. 
But as he saw that all the Indians of the villages were in 
arms, though a few had been friendly, he asked them 
touching Atabaliba, and whether he was waiting for the 
Christians with pacific or warlike intentions. None of the 
Indians wished to tell the truth, by reason of the fear they 
had of Atabaliba ; until one of the principal men among 
them was taken apart and tortured. He then said that 
Atabaliba waited with hostile intentions, his army being in 
three detachments, one at the foot of the mountains, another 

^ The valleys of the rivers of Motupe and Leche. 

1 Xeres never seems to have heard the word Ynca. He calls the 
Ynca Huayna Ccapac, the father of Atahuallpa and Huascar, by the 
name of " Old Cuzco" throughout ; mistaking the name of the capital 
city for the name of the sovereign. He also calls Huascar "Young 
Cuzco". Hernando Pizarro makes the same mistake. 

2 This was the valley of Cinto. See Cieza de Leon, p. 240. Lorente 
identifies the river with that of Leche. 


on the summit, and another at Caxamalca. He also told 
them that Atabaliba waited in great pride, saying that he 
would kill the Christians, whom he hated. The next 
morning the Captain sent this news to the Governor. Then 
the Governor ordered trees to be cut down on both sides of 
the river, on which the troops and baggage might pass. 
Three rafts were constructed, on which the men continued 
to cross over during the whole day, the horses swimming. 
In all this the Governor worked hard, until the army had 
crossed. He then went over, and lodged in the fortress 
where the Captain was. He sent for a Chief, from whom 
he learnt that Atabaliba was on the other side of Caxamalca, 
in Guamachuco, with many warriors, his force numbering 
fifty thousand men. When the Governor heard of so large a 
number, believing that the Chief had made a mistake in his 
account, he was told how the Indians counted, from one to 
ten, from ten to a hundred, from ten hundreds making a 
thousand ; and that five tens of thousands were the numbers 
which Atabaliba had with him. The Chief who gave the 
Governor this information was the principal Chief among 
those of that river. He said that when Atabaliba visited 
his country he had concealed himself from fear ; and when 
Atabaliba could not find him in his village he killed, out of 
five thousand inhabitants, as many as four thousand, and 
took six hundred women and six hundred boys to distribute 
them among his soldiers. The Chief of that village and 
fortress where the Governor lodged, was called Cinto,'' and 
he was then with Atabaliba. 

Here the Governor and his troops rested during four 
days, and on the day before he departed, he spoke with a 
principal Indian of the province of San Miguel, and said to 
him : " Are you bold enough to go to Caxamalca as a spy, 
and to bring me news of what is going on there ?" The 

» The valley itself was called Cinto. Garcilasso de la Vega has Cintu^ 
ii, p. 424. 


Indian answered : " I will not go as a spy, but I will go a3 
your messenger to speak with Atabaliba, and I will learn 
whether there are warriors in the mountains, and the inten- 
tions of Atabaliba." The Governor said : " Go as you desire, 
and if there are troops in the mountains (as is reported here), 
send me word by one of the Indians whom you take with 
you. Speak with Atabaliba and his people, and tell him of 
the kind treatment that I and the Christians show to the 
friendly chiefs, that we only make war upon those who 
attack us, and that all you have said is true, and according 
to what you have seen. If Atabaliba wishes to be friendly, 
tell him that I will be his friend and brother, and will favour 
and help him in his war." That Indian departed on the 
embassy, while the Governor continued his march across 
those valleys, arriving every day at a village with a walled 
house like a fortress. After three days he reached a village 
at the foot of the mountains,* leaving the road along which 
he had hitherto marched, on his right hand, for it leads by 
the way of those valleys to Chincha. The other road goes 
direct to Caxamalca. The road to Chincha passed through 
many villages, and led from the river of San Miguel. It 
was paved, and bounded on each side by a wall. Two carts 
could be driven abreast upon it. From Chincha it led to 
Cuzco, and, in many parts of it, rows of trees were planted 
on either side, for the sake of their shade on the road. 
This road was made for old Cuzco, when he visited his do- 
minions, and those houses, surrounded by walls, were his 
lodgings. Some of the Christians were of opinion that the 

* Hernando Pizarro calls this place La Ramada. It is in the valley 
of the river Jequetepeque, at the foot of the Andes. By the route across 
the Andes followed by Pizarro, the new railway now under construction 
will pass. Its terminus on the coast is at Pacasmayo, and it is taken up 
the valley of Jequetepeque, by San Pedro, Guadaloupe, and Magdalena, 
and over the Andes, to Caxamarca. From Magdalena another road 
branches off, and passes down the valley of Chicama to Truxillo. This 
was the route taken by Lieutenant Maw in 1829. 


Governor sliould take this road to Chinclia, because there 
was a difficult mountain to traverse by the other road before 
reaching Caxamalca, in which the soldiers of Atabaliba were 
posted, and some disaster might befall, if that road was 
taken. The Governor answered that " they now had news 
of Atabaliba, and that they had been marching in search 
of him ever since they left the river of San Miguel. If they 
turned aside now, the Indians would say that it was from 
fear, and they would become more proud than they were 
before." For these and other reasons the Governor said 
that he would not turn aside from his intention of marching 
to the place where Atabaliba was, wherever that might be. 
He exhorted all his men to make up their minds to act as 
he hoped they would, and to have no fear of the great 
number of soldiers in the army of Atabaliba, for though the 
Christians might be few, yet the help of our Lord would be 
sufficient to confound their enemies, and to make them 
come to a knowledge of our Holy Catholic Faith. He re- 
minded them that every day they had seen our Lord work a 
miracle for them in their need, and he assured them that 
He would be with them still, seeing that they went with the 
good intention of bringing these infidels to a knowledge of the 
truth, without doing harm or injury to any except those 
who desired to show opposition and who appeared in arms. 

After the Governor had made this speech, all declared 
that he should take the road which seemed best to him, and 
that they would follow cheerfully, and show him what each 
man could do when the time came. 

Having arrived at the foot of the mountains they rested 
for a day to arrange the order for the ascent. The Gover- 
nor, after taking counsel with experienced officers, resolved 
to leave the rear guard and baggage, taking with him forty 
horse and sixty foot. He entrusted the remainder to the 
care of a Captain, and ordered him to follow with much cir- 
cumspection, telling him that he would receive instructions 


as to what lie was to do. Having made these arrangements, 
the Governor commenced the ascent. The horsemen led 
their horses up until, at noon, they reached a pallisaded 
fort on the top of a hill, in a nairow part of the road where, 
with few Christians, the way might be made good against 
a great army. It was so steep that, in pljJces, they had to 
ascend by steps, and there was no other place but the road 
by which the ascent could be effected. This pass was 
ascended without its being defended by anyone. The for- 
tress was surrounded by stone walls, and was built on a hill 
with declivitous rocks on all sides. Here the Governor 
stopped to rest and have some food. The cold is so great 
on these mountains that some of the horses, accustomed to 
the warmth of the valleys, were frost-bitten. Thence the 
Governor went to sleep at a village, and sent a messenger to 
the forces in his rear, with the news that they might safely 
advance through the pass, and with orders that they were 
to push on, so as to pass the night at the fortress. The 
Governor lodged that night at a village, in a strong house 
surrounded by a masonry wall, as extensive as a fort of Spain, 
with its doorways. If the people had had the artists and 
tools of Spain, this surrounding wall could not have been 
better built. The people of this village had taken up arms, 
except some women and a few Indians. The Governor 
ordered a Captain to take two from amongst the Indians, 
and to examine each separately touching the affairs of that 
land, asking them where Atabaliba was, and if he intended 
peace or war. The Captain learnt from them that Ataba- 
liba had reached Caxamalca three days before, with a large 
force ; but they knew nothing of his intentions. They 
said, however, that thay had always heard that Atabaliba 
wished to have peace with the Christians. The people of 
the village were on his side. Towards sunset one of the 
Indians who had gone with the messenger arrived, and said 
that he had been sent back by his master when he was near 


Caxamalca, because he had encountered two messengers of 
Atabaliba who were coming behind him and would arrive 
next day. He reported that Atabahba was at Caxamalca, 
and that there were no armed men on the road. The Go- 
vernor sent back this intelligence to the Captain in charge 
of the baggage^ by a letter, in which he was told that the 
Governor would make but a short march next day, in order 
that the Captain might join him, and that the whole force 
would then advance together. The next morning the 
Governor marched with his troops, still ascending the 
mountains, and stopped on a plain on the summit, near 
some springs of water, to wait for those who were still be- 
hind. The Spaniards rested in the cotton tents they brought 
with them, making fires to protect themselves from the cold 
of the mountains. For on the plains of Castillo it is not 
colder than on these heights, which are clear of trees, but 
covered with a grass,^ like short esparto.^ There are a few 
stunted trees, and the water is so cold that it cannot be 
drunk without being first warmed. After the Governor had 
rested here for a short time, the rear guard arrived, and 
also the messengers sent by Atabaliba, who brought ten 
sheep. Being brought before the Governoi', and having made 
their obeisances, they said : — " Atabaliba has sent these 
sheep for the Christians, and he would know the day on which 
they will arrive at Caxamalca, that he may send out pro- 
visions on the road.^^ The Governor received them well, and 
said that he rejoiced at their arrival with a message from his 
brother Atabaliba, and that he would come as quickly as 
possible. After they had eaten food, and had some rest, 
the (jovernor questioned the messengers touching the affairs 
of their land, and respecting the wars waged by Atabcliba. 
One of them answered that Atabaliba had been five days in 
Caxamalca, waiting for the Governor, and that he had only 

* This grass is the Stijya Ychn. It grows in large coarse tnfts. 

* Bsparto is feathei- grass, also a Stipa. 


a few troops with him, the rest having been sent to make 
war against his brother CuzcoJ The Governor then asked 
what had taken place in all those wars, and how Atabaliba 
had commenced his conquests. The Indian answered :— 
" My Lord Atabaliba is the son of old Cuzco/ who is now 
dead, but who once ruled over all these lands. He left to 
his son Atabaliba the dominion over a great province called 
Quito ; and to another elder son he left all the other lands 
and the principal lordship, and, as successor to the sove- 
reignty, he was called Cuzco, like his father. But, not con- 
tent with the sovereignty, he came to wage war on his 
brother Atabaliba, who sent him messages, beseeching him 
to allow him to enjoy peacefully the inheritance that had 
been left him by his father. But the Cuzco would not, and 
he killed his heirs, and a brother of both of them, who came 
with the message. Seeing this, Atabaliba came against 
him with a large army, as far as a province called Tumi- 
pomba,^ which was within the territory of his brother; and, 
because the people resisted, he burnt their town and killed 
them ail. Thence the news came to his brother that he had 
invaded the land, and was advancing against him. When 
the Cuzco heard this, he fled to his own land, and Atabaliba 
marched onwards, conquering the lands of the Cuzco, with- 
out meeting any resistance, because the people had heard 
of the punishment he had inflicted upon Tumipomba. He 
obtained recruits from all the lands he conquered, and when 
he arrived at Caxamalca, the place appeared to be in a fertile 
land, so he rested there while all the other territory of his 
brother was subdued. He sent a captain with two thousand 
men against the city where his brother lived, and as his 
brother had a vast army, all these men were killed. Ata- 

' The Ynca Huascar. ^ The Ynca Huayna Ccapac. 

» A corruption of Tumi-pampa ; a place in the kingdom of Quito. 
Huayna Ccapac built a magniticeut palace there, which was his favourite 


baliba then sent more troops under two captains, and in two 
months tidings came that these two captains had gained all 
the lands of the Cuzco, had arrived at his city, defeated hia 
army, taken him prisoner, and seized much gold and silver." 
The Governor said to the messenger : — " I rejoice at the 
tidings you have given me, and at the victory of your Lord; 
for his brother, not content with what he had, strove to re- 
duce under his yoke the Lord who had received his inherit- 
ance from his father. To tlie proud it happens as it has 
done to this Cuzco : for they not only fail to get what they 
unjustly grasp at, but remain with the loss of their own 
property and freedom." The Governor, believing that all that 
this Indian had told him, on the part of Atabaliba, was in- 
tended to amaze the Christians, and make them understand 
his power and skill, also said to the messenger: — "I well be- 
lieve that what you have told me is true, because Atabaliba 
is a great Lord, and I am informed that he is a good soldier. 
Yet I would have you to know that my Lord the Emperor, 
who is King of Spain and of all the Indies and of Tierra 
Firme, and Lord over all the World, has many servants who 
are greater Lords than Atabaliba, and his captains have 
fought and taken much greater Lords than either Atabaliba, 
his brother, or his father. The Emperor has sent me to 
these lands to bring the inhabitants to a knowledge of God, 
and, in his service, I have defeated greater Lords than 
Atabaliba, with these few Christians that are with me now. 
If he should wish for my friendship, and to receive me 
peacefully, as other Lords have done, I shall be his good 
friend, and I will assist him in his conquest, leaving him in 
his present state ; for I go through these lands to discover 
the other sea. But if he should wish for war, I will make 
war, as I have done against the chief of the island of San- 
tiago, and against the chief of Tumbez, and against all 
others who have wished to have war with me. I make war 
upon no one, nor do I molest any one, unless war is made 
upon me." 


When the messengers heard these things, they were at 
first so astounded that they could not speak, to think that 
so few Spaniards could have performed such wonderful 
things. After a time they expressed a wish to go with this 
reply to their Lord, and to tell him that the Christians 
would come quickly, in order that he might send out pro- 
visions on the road. The Governor dismissed them. The 
next morning he continued the march, still over the moun- 
tains, and that night he slept at some villages he came to, 
in a valley. As soon as the Governor arrived, there came 
the chief messenger, whom Atabaliba had first sent with 
the present of the fountains like fortresses, and who came 
to (^aran by way of Caxas. The Governor was very glad to 
see him, and inquired after Atabaliba. The messenger 
answered that he was well, and that he had sent ten sheep 
for the Christians. He spoke very freely, and, from his con- 
versation, he seemed to be an intelligent man. 

When he had completed his speech, the Governor asked 
the interpreters what he had said. They answered that he had 
repeated the same as had been said by the other messen- 
gers the day before; but that he had added many arguments, 
praising the greatness of his Lord and the vast power of 
tis army, and assuring the Governor that Atabaliba would 
receive him in peace, and that he desired to have him as a 
friend and a brother. The Governor answered with fair 
words, such as the other had used. This ambassador was 
served as a Lord, and had five or six cups of fine gold, 
from which he drank, and he gave the Spaniards cldclia^ 
to drink out of them, which he brought with him. He said 
that he desired to go to Caxamalca with the Governor. 

Next morning the Governor started, his way leading over 
the mountains as before, and he reached a village of Ataba- 
liba, where he rested for one day. Next day the messenger 

1 Fermented liquor made from maize. The correct Quichua word is 


came in whom the Governor had sent to Atabaliba. He 
was one of the principal Indians of the province of San 
Miguel. When he saw the messenger of Atabaliba, who 
was present, he rushed upon him, and seized hold of his 
ears, pulling them fiercely until the Governor ordered him 
to let go, for if they had been left alone mischief would 
have come of it. The Governor said to him, '^ Why have 
you done this to the messenger of my brother Atabaliba 1" 
He answered, " This is a great rogue, this carrier of Ataba- 
hba. He comes here to tell lies, pretending to be a great 
man. Atabaliba is in warlike array outside Caxamalca on' 
the plain. He has a large army, and I found the town 
empty. I went thence to the camp, and saw many people 
and flocks, and a quantity of tents, and all was ready for 
war. They wanted to kill me, only it was said that if I 
was killed, their ambassadors, who are here, would also be 
put to death, and that they would not be allowed to go 
until I returned. They would give me no food without 
bartering. I asked them to let me see Atabaliba and de- 
liver my message, but they refused, saying that he was 
fasting, and could not speak to any one. An uncle of his 
came out to speak to me, and I told him that I was your 
messenger, and that I was ready to tell him anything he 
chose to ask. He inquired of me what sort of people were 
the Christians, and what kind of arms they bore. I replied 
that they were valiant men and great warriors, that they 
had horses which ran like the wiod, and that those who rode 
them carried long lances, with which they killed as many 
people as they met, overtaking them in two jumps, while 
the horses killed many with their feet and mouths. I added 
that the Christians who marched on foot were very alert, 
carrying on one arm a shield of wood with which they de- 
fended themselves, and strong tunics quilted with cotton ; 
that they had very sharp swords with which they cut a man 
in two at each blow, and that with these they could cut all 


• the arms used by the Indians. Others, I said, carry shngs 
with which they shoot from afar, and at every shot they 
kill a man. Others shoot with powder, sending forth lumps 
of powder, which kill many men. They answered that all 
this was nought, that the Christians were few in number, 
that the horses had no arms, and that they would soon kill 
them with their lances. I replied that the horses had thick 
skins which their lances could not penetrate. They then 
said that they did not fear the two shots of fire, and that 
the Christians only had two. When I wished to depart, 
I asked them to let me see Atabaliba, as his messengers 
came and spoke to the Governor, who was better than he, 
but they would not let me see him, and so I departed. See 
then if I have not good reason for killing this man ; for, 
being a carrier of Atabaliba (as they have told me that he 
is), he speaks with you, and eats at your table, while I, who 
am a Chief, was not allowed to speak with Atabaliba, nor 
would they give me to eat, and it was only by good argu- 
ments that they were induced to refrain from, killing me." 
The messenger of Atabaliba replied with some fear, seeing 
that the old Indian had spoken so boldly. He said, "If 
there were no people in the town of Caxamalca, it was to 
leave the houses empty for the reception of the Christians, 
and Atabaliba is in the field because such is his custom 
after he has commenced a war. If they would not allow 
the messenger to speak to him, it was because he was fast- 
ing, according to the custom, and he could see no one by 
reason of being in retirement, at which time he speaks to 
no one. No one dared to tell him that the messenger was 
waiting, but if he had known it he would have made him 
come in, and would have given him food.'^ He used many 
other ai'guments to show that the intentions of Atabaliba 
were friendly. If all the conversations between this Indian 
and the Governor were written down in full, it would fill a 
large book ; so, for the sake of brevity, a summary of them 


is given. The Governor said that he well believed it was 
as the Indian stated, and that he had no less confidence in 
his brother Atabaliba. He continued to treat the man as 
well as before, rebuking his own messenger, and telling 
the ambassador that he regretted the ill treatment he had 
received in his presence. But in secret he looked upon it 
as certain that what his own messenger had told him was 
true, by reason of the knowledge he had of the cautious 
intrigues of the Indians. 

Next day the Governor departed, and slept on a plain, 
intending to reach Caxamalca at noon the day after, as they 
told him it was near. Here messengers arrived from Ata- 
baliba, with food for the Christians. Early next morning 
the Governor started, with his troops in order of battle, and 
marched to within a league of Caxamalca. Here he waited 
for his rear guard to join him. All the troops got their 
arms ready, and the Governor formed the Spaniards, horse 
and foot, three deep, to enter the town. In this order the 
Governor advanced, sending messengers to Atabaliba, that 
he might come and meet hira at the town of Caxamalca. 
On reaching the entrance to Caxamalca, they saw the camp 
of Atabaliba at a distance of a league, in the skirts of the 
mountains. The Governor arrived at this town of Caxa-I 
malca on Friday, the 15th of November, 1532, at the hour 
of vespers. In the middle of the town there is a great open 
space,^ surrounded by walls and houses. The Governor 
occupied this position, and sent a messenger to Atabaliba, 
to announce his ai^ival, to arrange a meeting, and that he 
mie'ht show him where to lodo-e. Meanwhile he ordered 
the town to be examined, with a view to discovering a 
stronger position where he might pitch the camp. He 
ordered all the ti^oops to be stationed in the open space, and 
the cavalry to remain mounted, until it was seen whether 
Atabaliba would come. After examining the town it was 
' Hernando Pizarro says that it was triangular. 


found that there was no better position in the neighbour- 
hood. This town^ which is the principal place in the valley, 
is situated on the skirts of a mountain, and there is a league 
of open plain in front of it. Two rivers flow through the 
valley, which is level, and well peopled, and surrounded by 
mountains.^ The town had two thousand inhabitants. At 
its entrance there were two bridges, because two rivers flow 
past. The plaza is larger than any in Spain, surrounded 
by a wall, and entered by two doorways which open upon 
the streets of the town. The houses are more than two 
hundred paces in length, and very well built, being sur- 
rounded by strong walls, three times the height of a man. 
The roofs are covered with straw and wood, resting on the 
walls. The interiors are divided into eight rooms, much 
better built than any we had seen before. Their walls are 
of very well cut stones, and each lodging is surrounded by 
its masonry wall with doorways, and has its fountain of 
water in an open court, conveyed from a distance by pipes, 
for the supply of the house. In front of the plaza, towards 
the open country, a stone fortress is connected with it by a 
staircase leading from the square to the fort. Towards the 
open country there is another small door, with a narrow 
staircase, all within the outer wall of the plaza. Above the 
town, on the mountain side, where the houses commence, 
there is another fort on a hill, the greater part of which is 
hewn out of the rock. This is larger than the other, and 
surrounded by three walls, rising spirally. They are of a 
strength such as had not before been seen among the Indians. 
Between the mountain and the great open space there is 
another smaller court, entirely surrounded by buildings, in 

* Humboldt describes the fertile valley of Caxamarca as of an oval 
shape, covering ninety-six to a hundred and twelve square miles, with a 
small river winding through it. The soil is fertile, and the plain full of 
cultivated fields and gardens, traversed by avenues of willows, large 
flowered daturas, mimosas, ^.nd the beautiful quenuar trees (^Polylepia 


whicli there were many women for the service of Atabaliba.* 
Before entering this city there is a bouse built in a court 
surrounded by walls. In the court there is a grove of trees 
planted by hand. They say that this is the house of the 
Sun, for in each village they build their mosques to the 
Sun. There are many other mosques in this town, and they 
hold them in veneration throughout the land. When they 
enter them, they take off their shoes at the doors. The 
people of all the villages we came to after ascending the 
mountains, are superior to those we left behind. Those of 
the mountains are clean and more intelligent, and the women 
are very modest. The women wear over their clothes 
highly ornamented girdles, fastened round the middle. 
Over the gown they wear a mantle reaching from the head 
to half down the legs, which is like the mantilla of Spain. 
The men dress in shirts without sleeves, and outer mantles. 
They all weave wool and cotton in their houses, and make 
the cloth they require, and shoes for the men, of wool and 
cotton. The Governor was a long time in the plaza with his 
men, waiting for Atabaliba either to come or to assign him 
a lodging. As it was getting late he sent a Captain^ with 
twenty horse to speak with Atabaliba, and to say that he 
should come and confer with the Governor. The Captain 
had orders to preserve peace, and to pick no quarrel, even 
if his men were provoked ; but to do his best to obtain a 

* Humboldt states that the palace of the Ynca, at Cassu-marca, was 
situated on a hill of porphyry which had originally been hollowed at the 
surface, so that it surrounds the principal dwelling almost like a wall or 
rampart. A State prison and a municipal building {Casa del Cahildo) 
have been erected on part of the ruins. The ruins consist of fine cut 
blocks of stone, two or three feet long, and placed upon each other 
without cement. There were steps cut in the rock, and minor buildings 
for servants, partly of cut stones with sloped roofs, and partly of bricks 
with vaulted recesses. 

Humboldt made acquaintance, at Cassa-marca, with a family de- 
scended from Atahualpa, through females, called Astorpilco. 

» This was Hernando de Soto. 


hearing and return with the reply. This Captain had got 
half-way, when the Governor went up into the fort, and saw 
a great body of men in front of the tents. In order that the 
Christians who had gone might be in no danger if they were 
attacked, and be able to retreat from among the Indians 
and defend themselves, he sent another Captain, his own 
brother,^ with other twenty horsemen, giving him orders 
not to permit them to raise any shouts. In a little while it 
began to rain and hail, and the Governor ordered the 
Christians to take shelter in the rooms of the palace, and 
the Captain of artillery, with his guns,''' to station himself 
and his men in the fortress. While they were there, an 
Indian arrived from Atabaliba to tell the Governor that he 
might lodge where he pleased, but not to go up into the for- 
ti-ess of the plaza ; and to excuse himself from coming on 
the ground that he was fasting. The Governor replied 
that he would do so, and that he had sent his brother to ask 
for an interview, as he had a great desire to see and know 
one of whom he had heard so much. The messenger went 
back with this answer, and the Captain Hernando Pizarro 
returned after nightfall with the Christians. On coming be- 
fore the Governor they said that they had found a bad part 
of the road, in a swamp, which had previously appeared to 
be paved. For there is a broad road leading from the 
town, made with earth and stone, as far as the camp of 
Atabaliba. This pavement led over the bad places, but 
they had broken it up at the swamp ; so that the Christians 
had to pass by another way. They crossed two rivers 
before reaching the camp. In front of it there is a river, 
which the Indians cross by a bridge, and here is the camp, 
surrounded by water. The Captain who went first left his 
men on this side the river, that the Indians might not be 

• Hernando Pizarro. 

' Ihe captain of artillery was Pedro de Candia, the stout-hearted 
Greek. Their artillery consisted of two falconets. 


excited, and he would not go by the bridge, fearing for his 
horse, so he crossed by the water, taking an interpreter 
with hira. He passed through a squadron of infantry, and 
came to the lodging of Atabaliba, where there were four 
hundred Indians in an open space, who appeared to be a 
body guard. The tyrant was at the door of his lodging, 
sitting on a low stool, with many Indians before him, and 
women at his feet, who almost surrounded hira.^ He wore 
across his forehead a woollen fringe,^ which looked like silk, 
of a crimson colour, fastened to the head by cords, so as to 
come down to the eyes, which made him look much graver 
than he really is. His eyes were cast on the ground, 
without looking in any other direction. 

When the Captain came before him, he said, through the 
interpreter, that he was a Captain sent by the Governor to 
express the great desire he had to see him, and that if he 
would come the Governor would greatly rejoice ; and the 
Captain added other arguments. He gave no answer, nor 
did he even raise his eyes to look at the Captain. But a 
Chief replied to what the Captain had said. At this junc- 
ture the other Captain arrived where the first Captain had 
left his men, and, asking what had become of him, they 
answered that he had gone to speak with the Cacique. 

8 Don Alonzo Enriquez says that Soto forced his horse's head over the 
head of Atahuallpa, when he was sitting in state, so that the breath 
from the horse's nostrils moved the fringe on the Ynca's forehead. Soto 
was astonished that, though he had never seen a horse before, he was 
not in the least terrified, nor did he even raise his head (p. 92). 

' The llautu or Ynca ensign of sovereignty. It is thus described by 
Pedro Pizarro : — " Plaits made of coloured wool, the thickness of a 
middle finger. They are worn in the manner of a crown, not with 
points, but round, and the width of a man's hand. Over the forehead 
was a fringe also the width of a man's hand, or a little more, of very 
fine wool cut in very equal lengths, and enlaced half way down with 
very small threads of gold, very skilfully. This wool was spun, with 
the lower ends untwisted, being those which fell over the forehead. 
The fringe reached to the eyebrows, and covered all the forehead."' 


Leaving his people^ he crossed the river, and, on approach- 
ing near to where Atabaliba was seated, the other Captain 
said : " This is a brother of the Governor, who comes to see 
you." Then Atabaliba raised his eyes and said: "Mal9a- 
biHca,^ a Captain that I have on the river of Turicara,^ sent 
to say that you ill-treat the Caciques and put them in chains, 
and he sent me a collar of iron, and they say that he killed 
three Christians and a horse. But I intend to go to-morrow 
to see the Governor, and to be a friend of the Christians, 
because they are good." Hernando Pizarro answered : 
" Mal9abiHca is a scoundrel, and neither he nor all the 
Indians of that river together could kill a single Christian. 
How could they kill either a Christian or a horse, seeing 
that they are mere chickens ? The Governor and the 
Christians do not ill-treat the Caciques unless they are 
hostile, and those who are friendly are treated very well. 
Those who make war are attacked until they are destroyed. 
"When you see what the Christians do, when they help you 
in your wars against your enemies, you will know that 
Mal^abiHca told lies to you." Atabaliba said : " A Cacique 
refuses to obey me. My troops will go with yours, and you 
will make war upon him ?" Hernando Pizarro replied, " On 
account of one Cacique, it is not necessary that you should 
send any of your Indians, though you have so large a force. 
Ten Christians on horseback will suflfice to destroy him." 

Atabaliba laughed, and said that they should drink. 
The Captains excused themselves from drinking the Indian 
liquor by saying that they were fasting ; but they were im- 
portuned by him, and accepted. Presently women came 
with vases of gold containing chicha of maize. When Ata- 

' A chief in the valley of Turicara or Chira. 

* Or Chira, the river on the banks of which San Miguel was originally 
built. Gomara says that this chief, whom he calls Maycabelica, was 
Chief of Poechos, on the river Chira, Hist, de las Indias^ cap. cxiii. 
Hernando Pizarro speaks of him as a Chief of San Miguel. 


baliba saw them he raised his eyes to them, and without 
saying a word they went back quickly, and returned with 
other larger vases of gold, and from these he gave them to 
drink.^ Afterwards they took their leave, expecting Ata- 
baliba to come and see the Governor on the following 
morning. His camp was formed on the skirts of a small 
hill, the tents, which were of cotton, extending for a league, 
with that of Atabaliba in the centre. All the men were on 
foot outside the tents, with their arms, consisting of long 
lances like pikes, stuck into the ground. There seemed to 
be upwards of thirty thousand men in the camp. 

When the Governor heard what had taken place, he 
ordered that a good watch should be kept that night in 
camp, and he commanded his Captain-General to set the 
guards, and to see that the rounds were gone throughout 
the night, which was accordingly done. On the Saturday 
morning a messenger from Atabaliba to the Governor ar- 
rived and said : " My lord has sent me to tell you that he 
wishes to come and see you, and to bring his men armed ; 
for the men whom you sent yesterday were armed ; and he 
desires you to send a Christian with whom he may come." 
The Governor answered : " Tell your lord to come when and 
how he pleases, and that, in what way soever he may come, 
I will receive him as a friend and brother. I do not send 
him a Christian, because it is not our custom so to send 
from one lord to another."* The messenger set out with 
this answer, and, as soon as he reached the camp, the 
sentries saw that the Indians were in motion. In a short 
time another messenger arrived, and said to the Governor : 

3 Titu Atauchi, the brother of Atahuallpa, told Felipillo, the inter- 
preter, to ask the Spaniards to drink. Both he, and another brother 
named Chuqui-huaman, pledged the Spaniards in bumpers of chicha. 
The girls then brought many kinds of fresh and dried fruits, and one of 
them, named Piilac Sisa Nusta, addressed the guests, and begged them 
to partake for the sake of friendship {Garcilasso de la Vega). 

* Hernando Pizarro says he did send the Christian. 


'^ Atabaliba sends me to say that he has no wish to bring 
his troops armed, and, though they will come with him, 
many will come without arms, because he wishes to bring 
them with him and to lodge them in the town : and they 
are to prepare a lodging in the plaza, where he will rest, 
which is the house known as the house of the serpent, be- 
cause there is a serpent of stone within it." The Governor 
repHed : " So let it be, and I pray that he may come 
quickly, for I desire to see him." 

Very soon they saw the plain full of men, halting at in- 
tervals, to wait for those who were filing out of the camp. 
The march of the troops along the road continued until the 
afternoon ; and they came in separate detachments. Having 
passed all the narrow places on the road, they reached the 
ground close to the camp of the Christians, and still troops 
kept issuing from the camp of the Indians. Presently the 
Governor ordered all the Spaniards to arm themselves 
secretly in their lodgings, and to keep the horses saddled 
and bridled, and under the orders of three captains,^ but 
none were to show themselves in the open space. The 
Captain of the artillery was ordered to have his guns pointed 
towards the enemy on the plain, and, when the time came, 
to fire. Men were stationed in the streets leading to the 
open space, and, taking twenty men with him, the Governor 
went to his lodging. These had the duty entrusted to 
them of seizing the person of Atabaliba, if he should come 
cautiously with so large a force as was coming; but the 
Governor ordered that ho should be taken alive. All the 
troops had orders not to leave their quarters, even if the 
enemy should enter the open space, until they should hear 
the guns fired ofi". The sentries were to be on the alert, 
and, if they saw that the enemy intended treachery, they 

* The three squadrons of horse, each numbering twenty, were com- 
manded by Hernando, Gonzalo, and Juan Pizarro, with the Captains 
Hernando de Soto and Sebastian de Benalcazar {Zarate, lib. ii, cap. v). 


were to give the signal ; and all were to sally out of the 
lodgings, the cavalry mounted, when they heard the cry of 

Having made these arrangements, the Governor waited 
for the appearance of Atabaliba ; but no Christian was in 
sight except the sentry, who gave notice of what was 
passing in the army of the Indians. The Governor and 
Captain-General visited the quarters of the Spaniards, seeing 
that they were ready to sally forth when it was necessary, 
saying to them all that they must be of good courage, and 
make fortresses of their hearts, for that they had no others, 
and no hope but in God, who would help those who worked 
in his service, even in their greatest need. He told them that 
though, for every Christian, there were five hundred Indians, 
yet they must have that reliance which good men find on 
such occasions, and they must trust that God would fight on 
their side. He told them that, at the moment of attacking, 
they must come out with desperate fury and break through 
the enemy, taking care that the horses do not hinder each 
other. These and similar exhortations were made by the 
Governor and Captain-General to the Christians, to raise 
their spirits, and they were more ready to come forth than to 
remain in their lodgings. Each man was ready to encounter 
a hundred, and they felt very little fear at seeing so great a 

When the Governor saw that it was near sunset, and that 
Atabaliba did not move from the place to which he had re- 
paired, although troops still kept issuing out of his camp, 
he sent a Spaniard to ask him to come into the square to 
see him before it was dark. As soon as the messenger came 
before Atabaliba, he made an obeisance to him, and made 
signs that he should come to where the Governor waited. 
Presently he and his troops began to move, and the Spaniard 
returned and reported that they were coming, and that the 
men in front carried arms concealed under their clothes. 


which were strong tunics of cotton, beneath which were 
stones and bags and slings ; all which made it appear that 
they had a treacherous design. Soon the van of the enemy 
began to enter the open space. First came a squadron of 
Indians dressed in a livery of different colours, like a chess 
board. ^ They advanced, removing the straws from the 
ground, and sweeping the road. Next came three squadrons 
in different dresses, dancing and singing. Then came a 
number of men with armour, large metal plates, and crowns 
of gold and silver. Among them was Atabaliba''' in a litter 
lined with plumes of macaws' feathers, of many colours, and 
adorned with plates of gold and silver. Many Indians car- 
ried it on their shoulders on high.^ Next came two other 
litters and two hammocks, in which were some principal 
chiefs ; and lastly, several squadrons of Indians with crowns 
of gold and silver. 

As soon as the first entered the open space they moved 
aside and gave space to the others. On reaching the centre 
of the open space, Atabaliba remained in his litter on high, 
and the others with him, while his troops did not cease to 
enter.^ A captain then came to the front and, ascending 
the fortress near the open space, where the artillery was 
posted, raised his lance twice, as for a signal.^ Seeing this, 

" First came three hundred youths with bows and arrows, singing, 
and cleaning the road with their hands. Then came a thousand men 
with pikes, having no iron tips, but with the points hardened in the fire. 
They wore a livery of white and red squares, like a chess board. A 
third squadron then entered, with hammers of copper and silver. (Rela- 
cioii del Primer Descubrimiento MS.) 

' He wore a collar of large emeralds. {Relacion, etc.) 

^ It was borne by eighty chiefs, all dressed in a very rich blue livery. 
{Relacion^ etc.) 

* Seeing no Spaniards, he said to his captains : — " Where are these 
Christians, that they do not appear?" They answered : — " Lord ! the 
Christians are hidden, for they are afraid." {Pedro Pizarro). 

' Hernando Pizarro does not appear to have thought that any signal 
was intended. He says that a few Indians went into the fort, and 


the Governor asked the Father Friar Vicente if he wished 
to go and speak to Atabaliba, with an interpreter ? He 
repHed that he did wish it, and he advanced, with a cross in 
one hand and the Bible in the other,- and going amongst 
the troops up to the place where Atabaliba was, thus ad- 
dressed him : '' I am a Priest of God, and I teach Christians 
the things of God, and in like manner I come to teach you. 
What I teach is that which God says to us in this Book. 
Therefore, on the part of God and of the Christians, I beseech 
you to be their friend, for such is God's will, and it will be 
for your good. Go and speak to the Governor, who waits 
for you.'^ 

Atabaliba asked for the Book, that he might look at it, 
and the Priest gave it to him closed. Atabaliba did not 
know how to open it, and the Priest was extending his arm 
to do so, when Atabaliba, in great anger, gave him a blow 
on the arm, not wishing that it should be opened. Then he 
opened it himself, and, without any astonishment at the 
letters and paper, as had been shown by other Indians, he 
threw it away from him five or six paces, and, to the words 
which the monk had spoken to him through the interpreter, 
he answered with much scorn, saying: " I know well how you 
have behaved on the road, how you have treated my Chiefs, 
and taken the cloth from my storehouses." The Monk re- 
plied : " The Christians have not done this, but some 
Indians took the cloth without the knowledge of the 
Governor, and he ordered it to be restored.^' Atabaliba 
said : " I will not leave this place until they bring it all to 
me." The Monk returned with this reply to the Governor. 
Atabaliba stood up on the top of the litter, addressing his 

planted a lance with a banner at the end, by way of taking possession. 
It was probably no more than a sign of the royal presence; like hoisting 
the standard at Windsor. 

^ lie was accompanied by Hernando de Aldana, and an interpreter 
named Martinillo. 


troops and ordering them to be prepared. The Monk told 
the Governor what had passed between him and Atabaliba, 
and that he had thrown the Scriptures to the ground.^ 
Then the Governor put on a jacket of cotton^ took his sword 
and dagger^ and, with the Spaniards who were with him, 
entered amongst the Indians most vaHantly ; and, with only 
four men who were able to follow him, he came to the litter 
where Atabaliba was, and fearlessly seized him by the arm, 
crying out Santiago. Then the guns were fired off, the 
trumpets were sounded, and the troops, both horse and foot, 
sallied forth.* On seeing the horses charge, many of the 
Indians who were in the open space fled, and such was the 
force with which they ran that they broke down part of the 
wall surrounding it, and many fell over each other. The 
horsemen rode them down, killing and wounding, and fol- 
lowing in pursuit. The infantry made so good an assault 
upon those that remained that in a short time most of them 
were put to the sword. The Governor still held Atabaliba 
by the arm, not being able to pull him out of the litter be- 
cause he was raised so high. Then the Spaniards made 
such a slaughter amongst those who carried the litter that 
they fell to the ground, and, if the Governor had not pro- 
tected Atabaliba, that proud man would there have paid for 
all the cruelties he had committed. The Governor, in pro- 
tecting Atabaliba, received a slight wound in the hand. 
During the whole time no Indian raised his arms against a 

' The Monk said : — " See you not what is happening ? Why are you 
treating with this proud dog, when the plain is covered with Indians. 
Fall upon him. I absolve you." (Relacion, etc.) 

Don Alonzo Enriquez says: — "Then the rascally friar, who was cer- 
tainly a peace-breaker, began to call with a loud voice, saying, ' Chris- 
tians, I call upon you to avenge this insult to the faith of Jesus Christ'." 
(P. 93). 

'* "At that sound we all came out as one man, for these houses, facing 
the plaza, had many doors, so it seemed as if they had been built for this 
business". {Relacion, etc.) 


Spaniard. So great was the terror of the Indians at seeing 
the Governor force his way through them, at hearing the 
fire of the artillery, and beholding the charging of the 
horses, a thing never before heard of, that they thought 
more of flying to save their lives than of fighting. All those 
who bore the litter of Atabaliba appeared to be principal 
chiefs. They were all killed, as well as those who were 
carried in the other litters and hammocks. One of them 
was the page of Atabaliba, and a great lord, and the others 
were lords of many vassals, and his Councillors. The chief 
of Caxamalca was also killed, and others ; but, the number 
being very great, no account was taken of them, for all who 
came in attendance on Atabaliba were great lords. The 
Governor went to his lodging, with his prisoner Atabaliba, 
despoiled of his robes, which the Spaniards had torn off in 
pulling hira out of the litter. It was a very wonderful thing 
to see so great a lord taken prisoner in so short a time, who 
came in such power. The Governor presently ordered 
native clothes to be brought, and when Atabaliba was 
dressed, he made him sit near him, and soothed his rage 
and agitation at finding himself so quickly fallen from his 
high estate. Among many other things, the Governor said 
to him : '^ Do not take it as an insult that you have been 
defeated and taken prisoner, for with the Christians who 
come with me, though so few in number, I have conquered 
greater kingdoms than yours, and have defeated other more 
powerful lords than you, imposing upon them the dominion 
of the Emperor, whose vassal I am, and who is King of 
Spain and of the universal world. We come to conquer this 
land by his command, that all may come to a knowledge of 
God, and of His Holy Catholic Faith ; and by reason of our 
good object, God, the Creator of heaven and earth and of ull 
things in them, permits this, in order that you may know him, 
and come out from the bestial and diabolical life you lead. 
It is for this reason that we, being so few in number, sub- 


jugate that vast host. When you have seen the errors in 
which you live, you will understand the good we have done 
you by coming to your land by order of his Majesty. You 
should consider it to be your good fortune that you have 
not been defeated by a cruel people, such as you are your- 
selves, who grant life to none. We treat our prisoners and 
conquered enemies with kindness, and only make war on 
those who attack us, and, being able to destroy them, we 
refrain from doing so, but rather pardon them. When I 
had a Chief, the lord of an island, my prisoner, I set him 
free that henceforth he might be loyal ; and I did the same 
with the Chiefs who were lords of Tumbez and Chilimasa, 
and others who, being in my power, and deserving death, I 
pardoned. If you were seized, and your people attacked 
and killed, it was because you came against us with so great 
an army, having sent to say that you would come peacefully, 
and because you threw the Book to the ground in which is 
written the words of God. Therefore our Lord permitted 
that your pride should be brought low, and that no Indian 
should be able to offend a Christian. '' 

After the Governor had delivered this discourse, Atabaliba 
thus replied : " I was deceived by my Captains, who told me 
to think lightly of the Spaniards. I desired to come peace- 
fully, but they prevented me, but all those who thus advised 
me are now dead. I have now seen the goodness and daring 
of the Spaniards, and that Malgabilica lied in all the news 
he sent me touching the Christians." 

As it was now night, and the Governor saw that those 
who had gone in pursuit of the Indians were not returned, 
he ordered the guns to be fired and the trumpets to be 
sounded to recall them. Soon afterwards they returned to the 
camp with a great crowd of people whom they had taken alive, 
numbering more than three thousand. The Governor asked 
whether they were all well. His Captain-General, who went 
with them, answered that only one horse had a slight 


wound. The Governor, with great joy, said: '^1 give 
thanks to God our Lord, and we all, gentlemen, ought to 
give thanks for the great miracle we have wrought this day. 
In truth we ought to believe that, without His special help, 
we could not have entered this land, how much less have 
conquered so great a host. God, in His mercy, sees fit to 
grant these favours, and we should give Him thanks for 
His great works, that we may conquer this kingdom. But, 
gentlemen, you must be fatigued, and I, therefore, desire 
you to retire to rest. Although we have the victory, we 
must still be watchful. The enemy is defeated, but he is 
cunning and experienced in war. This lord too, as we 
know, is feared and obeyed, and they will try every artifice 
to rescue him. This night, and every night, there must be 
good watch kept, and the rounds must be gone regularly, 
that we may be prepared for any event.^^ 

So they went to supper, and the Governor caused Ataba- 
liba to sit at the table, treating him well, and they served 
him in the same way as the Governor. Orders wei^e then 
given that he was to have such of his imprisoned women as 
he desired for his service, to wait on him, and a good bed 
was prepared for him in the same chamber where the 
Governor slept. He was allowed to remain unconfined, and 
without being kept in prison, but was watched by guards.^ 
The battle lasted only about half an hour, for the sun had 
already set when it commenced. If the night had not come 
on, few out of the thirty thousand men that came would 
have been left. It is the opinion of some, who have seen 
armies in the field, that there were more than forty thousand 
men. In the square and on the plain there were two thou- 
sand killed, besides wounded. A wonderful thing was ob- 

* Don Alonzo Enriquez tells us that, in twenty days, Atahuallpa had 
learnt to speak Spanish, and to play at chess and cards. He also asked 
men to write down words that he knew, and got others to read them ; 
and thus he acquired a knowledge of the art of writing. (Pp. 92, 93). 


served in this battle. It was that tlie horses which, the day 
before, could scarcely move for the cold, were able to charge 
with such fury that they seemed as if nothing had ever ailed 
them. The Captain-General set the watches and rounds for 
that night, stationing them at convenient points. Next 
morning the Governor sent a Captain, with thirty horse, to 
scour the plain, and he ordered them to break the arms of 
the Indians. The troops in the camp made the imprisoned 
Indians remove the dead bodies from the open space. The 
Captain, with his horsemen, collected all that was on the 
plain and in the tents of Atabaliba, and returned to the 
camp before noon with a troop of men, women, sheep, gold, 
silver, and cloth. Among these spoils there were eighty 
thousand jpesos, seven thousand marcs of silver, and fourteen 
emeralds. The gold and silver were in immense pieces, 
great and small plates and jars, pots, cups, and other shapes. 
Atabaliba said that all this was the furniture of his service, 
and that the Indians who fled had taken a great deal more 
away with them. The Governor ordered all the sheep to be 
set free, because there was a great multitude, and they en- 
cumbered the camp. The Christians could kill daily as 
many as they required. The Indians, who had been cap- 
tured the night before, were ordered to be collected in the 
open space, that the Christians might take those they re- 
quired for their service. All the rest were ordered to be set 
free, and to return to their homes, for they belonged to 
different provinces, and Atabaliba had brought them away 
to assist in his wars, and for the service of his army. 

Some were of opinion that all the Indian soldiers should 
be killed, or, at least, that their hands should be cut ofi". 
The Governor would not consent, saying that it would not 
be well to commit so great a cruelty, for, although the power 
of Atabaliba was great, and he was able to collect a vast multi- 
tude of people, yet the power of our Lord God is, beyond all 
comparison, greater ; and He grants aid to His own through 


His infinite goodness. He added that they should be cer- 
tain that He who had delivered them from the danger of the 
previous day would also protect them hereafter^ seeing that 
the intentions of the Christians were good in bringing these 
infidel barbarians to the service of God and to a knowledge 
of our Holy Catholic Faith. They should not desire to be 
like those Indians^ in their cruelties and sacrifices, which 
they perpetrate on those they capture in war. Those who 
died in the battle were more than enough ; and the prisoners, 
who had been brought in like sheep into a fold, should not 
be killed nor injured. They were, therefore, set free. 

In this town of Caxamalca, certain houses were found full 
of cloth, packed in bales which reached to the roof. They 
say that it was a depot to supply the army. The Christians 
took what they required, and yet the house remained so full 
that what was taken seemed hardly to be missed. The cloth 
was the best that had been seen in the Indies. The greater 
part of it is of very fine wool, and the rest of cotton of rich 
colours, beautifully variegated. The arms they found, with 
which they made war, and their manner of fighting were as 
follows. In the van of their armies came the sling-men, who 
hurled pebbles from slings. These sling-men carry shields, 
which they make from narrow boards very small. They also 
wear jackets of quilted cotton. Next came men armed with 
sticks having large knobs at one end, and axes. The sticks 
are a hraga and a half in length, and the thickness of a lance. 
The knob at the end is of metal, with five or six sharp points, 
each point being as thick as a man's thumb. They use 
them with both hands. The axes were the same size or 
larger. The metal blade was a jpalmo in width, like a 
halberd. Some of the axes and clubs, used by the chiefs, 
were of gold and silver. Behind these came men armed 
with hurling lances, like darts. In the rear were pikemen 
with lances thirty i^almos in length. These men had sleeves 
with many folds of cotton, over which they worked the lances. 


They are all divided into squadrons, with their banners and 
captains who command them, with as much order as Turks. 
Some of them wear great head pieces of wood, with many- 
folds of cotton, reaching to the eyes, which could not be 
stronger if they were of iron. The men who composed the 
army of Atabaliba were all very dexterous and experienced 
soldiers, who had served in it from boys. They were young 
and stout, and only a thousand of them sufficed to assault a 
town of that land, though it were garrisoned with twenty 
thousand men. 

The lodging of Atabaliba, which he had in the centre of 
his camp, was the best that had been seen in the Indies, 
though it was small. It consisted of four rooms, with a 
court in the centre, having a pond supplied with water by a 
tube, and this water was so warm that one could not bear to 
put a hand into it.^ This water rises out of an adjacent 
mountain. Another tube brought cold water, and the two 
united in one tube on the road, and flowed, mixed together, 
by a single tube, into the pond. When they wish to allow 
one sort to flow alone, they remove the tube of the other. 
The pond is large and paved with stone. Outside the house, 
in a part of the yard, there is another pond, not so well 
made. They both have their flights of stone steps, by 
which to go down and bathe. The room in which Ata- 
baliba stayed during the day was a corridor looking into an 
orchard, and near it there is a chamber where he slept, with 
a window looking towards the court and the pond. The 
corridor also opens on the court. The walls were plastered 
with a red bitumen, better than ochre, which shined much, 
and the wood, which formed the eaves of the house, was of 
the same colour. Another room is composed of four vaults, 
like bells, united into one. This is plastered with lime, as 

® Humboldt mentions the columns of smoke, seen at a distance, rising 
from the warm springs of Pultamarca, which are called the " Baths of 
the Ynca". The temperature of these sulphur springs was found to be 
156 degs. 2 min. Fahr. 


white as snow. The other two are offices. A river flows in 
front of this palace.''' 

Now that an account has been given of the victory of the 
Christians and the capture of Atabaliba, and of the ordering 
of his camp and army, I will proceed to say something con- 
cerning the father of this Atabaliba, and how he was made 
lord, besides other things relating to his grandeur, as they 
were described to the Governor by Atabaliba himself. The 
father of this Atabaliba was called the Cuzco,^ and he ruled 
over all that land, for an extent of more than three hundred 
leagues, in which the people obeyed him and paid him 
tribute. He was a native of a province called Quito -^ but, 
as he found the land, where he was encamped, to be pleasant, 
fertile, and rich, he settled there, and gave the name to a great 
city where he lived, which was called the city of the Cuzco.^ 
He was so feared and obeyed that they almost looked upon 
him as their god, and his image was set up in many towns. 
He had a hundred sons and daughters, most of them being 
still alive. It is eight years since he died, and he left as his 
heir a son of the same name as his own. He was a son of his 
legitimate wife. They call the principal wife, who is most 
loved by the husband, legitimate.^ This son was older than 
Atabaliba. The old Cuzco separated the province of Quito 
from the rest of the kingdom, and left it to Atabaliba. The 
body of the Cuzco is in the province of Quito, where he died, 
and his head was conveyed to the city of Cuzco, where they 
hold it in great veneration, adorning it with gold and silver.^ 

' Some slight remains of this palace were visible in Humboldt's time. 

* The Ynca Huayna Ccapac. 

" This is a mistake. It was Atahuallpa, not his father, who was a 
native of Quito. 

^ Xeres here makes a most extraordinary blunder, confusing the name 
of the city with that of the Ynca. 

'^ Another blunder. The legitimate wife was the sister, or at least 
the first cousin of the Ynca, of pure Ynca descent on both sides. 

' Another blunder. The body and head of Huayna Ccapac were con- 


The house in which it is kept is all plated with gold and 
silver, the one metal interwoven with the other. In this 
city there are twenty other houses with walls covered with 
thin gold leaf, both within and without. This city contains 
very rich edifices. In it the Cuzco had his treasury^ con- 
sisting of three chambers full of pieces of gold, five full of 
silver, and one hundred thousand lumps of gold taken from 
the mines, each lump weighing fifty castellanos. This has 
been tribute from the lands that have been subjugated. 
Beyond this city there is another called Collao, where there 
is a river containing much gold.* Ten days' journey from 
this province of Caxamalca, in another province called 
Guaneso,^ there is another river as rich as the one before 
mentioned. In all these provinces there are many mines of 
gold and silver. They get the silver out of the mountains 
with little trouble, one Indian getting five or six marcs in a 
single day. They find it with lead, tin, and sulphur, and 
afterwards they purify it. They get it out by burning the 
hill, and, as the sulphur stone burns, the silver falls in 
lumps. The distance from here to the city of Cuzco is 
forty days^ journey of a laden Indian, and the country is 
well peopled. Chincha is a populous district, half-way.® 
Throughout the land there are many flocks of sheep, and 
many are wild because they cannot maintain as many as 
they breed. Among the Spaniards who accompany the 
Governor they kill one hundred and fifty every day, and yet 

veyed together to Cuzco ; though he died at Tumi-pampa. The body 
■was discovered by the Spaniards and taken to Lima. See the account 
in Oarcilasso, i, p. 273. 

* The Collao is the name of the region drained by streams flowing into 
lake Titicaca. The river, containing gold, is of course in Caravaya, be- 
yond the eastern Cordillera. 

* Probably Huanuco, and the river Huallaga. 

« They seem often to have heard of Chincha. It is a valley on the 
coast. But Xeres confuses it vs^ith one of the four great divisions of the 
Ynca empire, called Chincha-suyu, which includes Cassamarca. 


there would be no scarcity if they remained in this valley 
throughout the year. The Indians usually eat them in all 
parts of the land. 

Atabaliba also said that after the death of his father he 
and his brother were at peace for seven years, each one in 
the land which their father had left them. But a little more 
than a year ago his brother rose against him with the design 
of depriving him of his government. Afterwards Atabaliba 
sent to beg him not to make war, but to be content with 
what his father had left him, but the Cuzco was not satisfied 
with this. Then Atabaliba departed from his land, which 
is called Quito, with all the soldiers he could collect, and 
came to Tomepomba,''' where he fought a battle with his 
brother. In this encounter Atabaliba and his troops killed 
more than a thousand of the men of Cuzco, and made him 
take to flight. He also slew all the people in Tomepomba 
because they attempted to defend the place; and he in- 
tended to destroy all the villages in the district, but he re- 
frained because he wished to pursue his brother. The 
Cuzco fled to his own land, and Atabaliba advanced, con- 
quering the provinces, while all the cities, remembering the 
fate of Tomepomba, voluntarily submitted. It is six months 
since Atabaliba sent two of his attendants, very valiant men, 
the one called Quisquis and the other Chaliachin,^ who ad- 
vanced with forty thousand men against the city of his 
brother, gaining all the land up to that on which the city 
stands, which they captured. They then killed many people, 
took the brother prisoner, and seized all the treasure of the 
father. When this news came to Atabaliba, he ordered his 
brother to be brought to him as a prisoner ; and there is 
news that they will soon arrive with him, and with much 
treasure. The captains remained in the city they had con- 
quered to guard it and the treasure it contains. They kept 
ten thousand men as a garrison, out of forty thousand they 
' Tumi-pampa. * Chalcuchinia. 


took with thenij and the other thirty thousand went to rest 
at their homes with the spoils they had secured. Atabaliba 
conquered all that his brother once possessed. 

Atabaliba and his Captains General who were carried in 
litters, have killed many people since the war began; and 
Atabaliba has perpetrated many cruelties on his enemies. 
He has with him all the chiefs of the villages he has con- 
queredj and has put his own governors in all the villages, 
otherwise he could not keep the country so quiet, and thus 
he has been feared and obeyed, and his soldiers have been 
well served by the people, who have also been treated well. 
Atabaliba intended, if his imprisonment had not come upon 
him, to go and rest in his own land, and, on his way, to 
complete the destruction of all the villages in the district of 
Tomepomba^ which had attempted to defend themselves ; 
peopling them with new families. For this purpose his 
captains had sent four thousand married men of the people 
of Cuzco to settle in Tomepomba. Atabaliba also said that 
he would deliver his brother, whom his captains were bring- 
ing a prisoner to this city, into the hands of the Governor, 
to do with him as he pleased. Atabaliba feared that the 
Spaniards would kill him, so he told the Governor, that he 
would give his captors a great quantity of gold and silver. The 
Governor asked him : " How much can you give, and in what 
time V Atabaliba said : " I will give gold enough to fill a 
room twenty-two feet long and seventeen wide, up to a white 
line which is half way up the wall." The height would be 
that of a man^s stature and a half. He said that, up to that 
mark, he would fill the room with different kinds of golden 
vessels, such as jars, pots, vases, besides lumps and other 
pieces. As for silver, he said he would fill the whole cham- 
ber with it twice over. He undertook to do this in two 
months. The Governor told him to send off messengers 
with this object, and that, when it was accomplished, he need 

" Tiimi-panijia. 


have no fear. Then Atabaliba sent messages to his captains, 
who were in the city of Cuzco, ordering them to send two 
thousand Indians laden with gold and silver, without count- 
ing that which was coming with his brother, whom they 
were bringing as a prisoner. The Governor asked him : 
" How long will your messengers take to go to the city of 
Cuzco?" Atabaliba said: "AVhen they are sent, with speed, 
to carry some tidings, they run by post from village to 
village, and go over the distance in five days. But if the 
man who stai-ts with the message goes the whole way, 
though he be an agile man, he will take fifteen days,^' The 
Governor also asked him: "Why did you order some 
Indians to be killed, whom the Christians found dead in 
your camp when they examined it ?" Atabaliba answered : 
" On the day that the Governor sent his brother, Hernando 
Pizarro, to the camp to speak with me, one of the Christians 
charged with his horse, and these men that are dead ran 
back. That is the reason that I oj-dered them to be killed.^' 
Atabaliba was a man of thirty years of age, good looking, 
somewhat stout, with a fine face, handsome and fierce, the 
eyes bloodshot.^ He spoke with much dignity, like a great 
lord. He talked with good arguments, and reasoned well, 
and when the Spaniards understood what he said, they knew 
him to be a wise man. He was cheerful ; but, when he 
spoke to his subjects, he was very haughty, and showed no 
sign of pleasure. Among other things, Atabaliba said to 
the Governor : '^ Ten days^ journey from Caxamalca, on the 
road to Cuzco, there is, in a village, a mosque,^ which all the 
inhabitants of that land look upon as their common temple. 
In it they all offer up gold and silver, and my father 
held it in great veneration, as well as myself. This mosque 
contains great riches, for, though there is a mosque in each 

^ He wore his mantle over his head, covering one ear, which had been 
broken through in his war with Huascar (Pedro Pizarro). 
'^ Pachacamac, on the coast. 


village where they have their special idols which they 
worship, in this mosque there is a general idol common to 
all, and there is a famous sage in charge of that mosque, 
whom the Indians believe to have a knowledge of future 
events, because he speaks to that idol/' Having heard 
these words (though he had already heard of this mosque), 
the Governor gave Atabaliba to understand : " All those 
idols are vanity, and he who speaks from them is the Devil, 
who deceives men and brings them to perdition, a fate which 
has befallen all those who have lived in that belief, and so 
died. But God is one sole Creator of heaven and earth, and 
of all things visible and invisible, and in this the Christians 
believe. Him only ought we to hold as God, and we are 
bound to do what he commands, and to receive the waters 
of baptism. Those who thus act will be received into His 
kingdom, and the others will go to the punishment of hell, 
where those are burning for ever who were without this 
knowledge, and who have served the Devil, making sacri- 
fices and offerings, and building mosques to him. All these 
things from henceforth must cease, because for this the 
Emperor, who is king and lord of the Christians, has sent 
us. It was because your people had Hved as they have 
lived without a knowledge of God that he allowed so great 
an army of them to be defeated and taken prisoners by a 
few Christians. How little help your God has given you ! 
By this you may know that he is the Devil who deceives 
you.'' Atabaliba said : " Until now I have never seen 
Christians, nor have my ancestors known anything of these 
things ; and I have lived as they lived." He added : '" I am 
amazed at what you have said ; aud I well know that the 
idol is not the true God, seeing that he gave me so little 


As soon as the Governor and the Spaniards were rested 
from the fatigues of the journey and of the battle, he sent 
uev/s to the citizens of San Miguel of what had happened. 


and inquiries as to their well-being, and whether any ships 
had arrived. He then ordered a church to be prepared in 
the square of Caxamalca, in which to celebrate the Holy 
Sacrament of the Mass. He also ordered the wall sur- 
rounding the square to be pulled down, because it was too 
low, and a higher wall to be built. In four days a wall was 
built, two men's lengths in height, and five hundred and 
fifty paces long. He also caused other precautions to be 
taken for the safety of the camp. Each day it was reported 
to him whether there was any concourse of people, and what 
things happened in the surrounding country. 

When the chiefs of this province heard of the arrival of 
the Governor, and of the imprisonment of AtabaHba, many 
of them came peacefully to see the Governor. Some of 
these chiefs were lords of thirty thousand Indians, all sub- 
ject to Atabaliba. When they came before him, they made 
great obeisances, kissing his feet and hands. He received 
them without looking at them. It was a strange thing 
this gravity of Atabaliba, and the reverence with which 
they all treated him. Every day they brought him many 
presents from all parts of the land. Thus, prisoner as he 
was, he had the state of a lord, and was veiy cheerful. It 
is true that the Governor treated him very well ; though 
sometimes he told him that Indians had informed the 
Spaniards of an assemblage of his troops in Guamachuco,'^ 
and other parts. Atabaliba repHed that throughout that 
land there was no one who would move without his permis- 
sion ; if, therefore, his warriors should come, the Governor 
might take it for certain that he had ordered them to come, 
and that then he could do with him as he pleased, for was 
he not his prisoner. The Indians said many things which 
were not true, although they gave rise to some excitement 

* Huamachuco, which Cieza de Leon states to be eleven leagues south 
of Cassa-marca. See my translations of Cieza de Leon, p. 287, and of 
GarcUasso de la Vega, ii. p. 1;17. 


among the Spaniards. Among many messengers who came 
to Atabaliba, there came one from those who were bringing 
his bi'other a prisoner, to report that, as soon as they had 
heard of his imprisonment, they had killed the Cuzco.* 
When the Governor knew this, he showed much displeasure. 
Then Atabaliba said that the news was false, that the Cuzco 
had not been killed, and that he would presently arrive, and 
that, if not, the Governor might order him to be killed. 
Afterwards Atabaliba declared that his captains had killed 
the Cuzco without his knowledge. The Governor obtained 
the news from the messengers, and knew that he had been 

After some days some of the people of Atabaliba arrived. 
There was a brother of his, who came from Cuzco, and 
sisters and wives. The brother brought many vases, jars, 
and pots of gold, and much silver, and he said that more 
was on the road ; but that, as the journey is so long, the 
Indians who bring the treasure become tired, and cannot all 
come so quickly, so that every day more gold and silver will 
arrive of that which now remains behind. Thus on some 
days twenty thousand, on others thirty thousand, on others 
fifty thousand or sixty thousand pesos of gold arrived, in 
vases, great pots weighing two or three arrohas, and other 
vessels. The Governor ordered it all to be put in the house 
where Atabaliba had his guards, until he had accomplished 
what he had promised. Twenty days of the month of 
December had passed, when messengers arrived from San 
Miguel with a letter which informed the Governor that six 
ships had arrived at the port of Cancebi, near Quaque. 
They brought one hundred and fifty Spaniards and eighty- 
four horses. The three larger ships came from Panama, 
and on board them were the Captain Diego de Almagro and 
one hundred and twenty men. The other three caravels 

* Huascar is said to have been drowned in the river of Anta-marca, 
See Herrera, Dec. v, lib. ii, cap. 2. 


were from Nicarague with thirty men, who came to this 
government with the desire to serve in it. From Oancebi, 
after they had landed the troops and horses, a vessel was 
sent to find out where the Governor was, and she arrived at 
Tumbez ; but the chief of that province would give no in- 
formation, and did not show the letter which the Governor 
left to be given to the ships that might arrive. So the 
ships returned without obtaining news of the Governor. 
Another vessel, which followed the first along the coast, ar- 
rived at the port of San Miguel, where the master landed 
and went to the town. There was great rejoicing at his 
arrival, and he returned with the letters which the Governor 
had sent to the citizens, announcing the victorj^ which God 
had granted to hira and his people, and the great riches of 
the land. The Governor, and all who were with him, were 
much pleased at the arrival of these ships. He sent mes- 
sengers with letters to the Captain Diego de Almagro and 
some persons who were with him, telling them how greatly 
he rejoiced at their arrival ; and that, as soon as they came 
to San Miguel (that they might avoid a stress of provisions), 
they should depart presently, and march to the neighbour- 
ing districts, on the road to Caxamalca, where there is great 
abundance. He added that he would arrange about sending 
down gold to pay the freight of the ships that they might 

Every day chiefs came to the Governor. Among others, 
two chiefs came who were called chiefs of the thieves, be- 
cause their people attacked all who passed through their 
land, which is on the road to Cuzco. After A.tabaliba had 
been in prison for sixty days, the chief of the village in 
which the mosque stands,^ and the guardian of the mosque 
arrived before the Governor, and he asked Atabaliba who 
they were. Atabaliba said that one was the chief of the 
village of the mosque, and that the other was the keeper of 

' racliacainae. 


it, and that he rejoiced at his arrival, because he could now- 
pay him out for the lies he had told. Atabaliba then begged 
the Governor to put the keeper in chains because it was he 
that advised the war with the Christians, saying that the 
idol had foretold that all would be killed. He had also told 
his father, the Cuzco, when he was on the point of death, 
that he would not die of that disease. The Governor or- 
dered the chain to be brought, and Atabaliba put it on, 
saying that it should not be taken off until the keeper had 
caused all the gold of the mosque to be brought. Atabaliba 
told the keeper that he wished the riches of the mosque to 
be given to the Christians because the idol was a liar ; and 
he added : " I wish to see whether this that you call your 
God will free you from your chains." The Governor and the 
chief, who came with the keeper, sent their messengers to 
bring the gold of the mosque and that belonging to the 
chief, and it was said that they could return in fifty days. 
The Governor had information that there were assemblies of 
men in the land, and that there were soldiers at Guama- 
chuco. So he sent Hernando Pizarro, with twenty horse 
and some foot, to Guamachuco, which is three days' journey 
from Caxamalca, to learn what was going on, and to bring 
the gold and silver that was in Guamachuco. The Captain 
Hernando Pizarro set out from Caxamalca on the eve of the 
Epiphany, in the year 1533. Fifteen days afterwards some 
Christians arrived at Caxamalca with a great quantity of 
gold and silver. There were more than three hundred loads 
of gold and silver in jars and great vases and in divers other 
shapes. The Governor ordered it all to be placed with the 
first that had been brought, where Atabaliba had his guards 
stationed. He kept it there, saying that he wished to keep 
an account, as he had to accomplish what he had promised ; 
that when it had all come, he might deliver up the whole. 
In order that the account might be correct, the Governor 
also guarded the treasure-house night and day ; and when 


it was deposited in tlie Louse each piece was counted, that 
there might be no fraud. With this gold and silver came a 
brother of Atabaliba, who said that there was still a great 
quantity on the road at Xauxa, in charge of one of the 
Captains of Atabaliba, named Chilicuchima.^ Hernando 
Pizarro wrote to the Governor that he had informed himself 
touching what was going on in the land, and that there was 
no news of any assemblages, nor of anything else, except 
that the g"old was at Xauxa, in charge of a Captain. He 
desired to know what he should do, and whether he should 
advance, adding that he would remain where he was uiitil 
he received further orders. The Governor answered that he 
was to proceed to the mosque, as he detained the keeper of 
it as his prisoner, and Atabaliba had ordered its treasure to 
be brought to Caxarnalca. His orders, therefore, were to 
march at once and secure all the gold that could be found in 
the mosque, writing a report from every village of what had 
happened on the road. 

Seeing the delay there was in bringing the gold, the 
Governor sent three Christians to fetch the gold that was at 
Xauxa^ and to see the city of Cuzco.^ He also gave powers 

« Chalcuchima. 

' Pizarro appears first to have sent three soldiers named Pedro Moguer, 
Francisco de Zarate, and Martin Bueno ; but, on their arrival at Cuzco, 
they behaved with so much imprudence and insolence, as to endanger 
their own lives and the success of their mission. After their departure 
Pizarro would seem to have doubted the wisdom of entrusting so delicate 
a mission to common soldiers. He, therefore, ordered two officers of 
distinction, Hernando de Soto and Pedro del Barco, a native of Lobon, 
to follow the three soldiers to Cuzco. They travelled in litters, carried 
on the shoulders of Indians. On reaching Xauxa they met the unfor- 
tunate Ynca Huascar, being brought as a prisoner to his brother Atahu- 
allpa. Huascar promised to give twice as much gold as it was possible 
for his brother to find, if they would return with him and persuade 
Pizarro to judge between him and his brother. The Spaniards had no 
interpreter ; but when the speech was reported to Atahuallpa, he sent 
orders for Huascar to be murdered on the road. See G. de la Vega, 


to one of the three to take possession of the city of Cuzco 
and its districts, in the name of his Majesty, in presence of 
a notary who went with him. He sent a brother of Ata- 
baliba with them. They had orders not to injure the 
natives, nor to take their gold nor anything else against 
their wills. They were not to do more than the chief who 
accompanied them wished them to do, lest they should be 
killed ; but they were to endeavour to get a sight of the 
city of Cuzco, and to bring a report of all they saw. These 
men set out from Caxamalca on the 5th day of February in 
the above-mentioned year. 

The Captain Diego de Alraagro arrived at Caxamalca 
with some troops, and entered it on Easter eve, being the 
14th of April of the said year, and was well received by the 
Governor and those who were with him. A negro, who set 
out with the Cuzco party, returned on the 28th of April with 
one hundred and seven loads of gold and seven of silver. He 
returned from Xauxa, where he met the Indians who were 
coming with the gold. The other Christians went onto Cuzco; 
and the negro reported that the Captain Hernando Pizarro 
would return very shortly, and that he had gone to Xauxa 
to see Chilicuchima. The Governor ordered this gold to be 
put with the rest, and all the pieces to be counted. 

Pt. II, lib. i, cap. 31 ; Zaraie, u, caj). vi ; Gomara, cap. cxiv ; and Her- 
rera, Dec. v, lib. i, cap. 1. 

Of the two Spaniards who visited Cuzco, Hernando de Soto achieved 
immortal fame as the discoverer of Florida. The fate of Pedro del 
Barco was less fortunate. He received half the convent of the Virgins 
of the Sun as his share of the spoils of Cuzco, and sold it to an apothe- 
cary named Segovia, who accidentally discovered a treasure under the 
pavement worth seventy-two thousand ducats. When Gonzalo Pizarro 
rose in rebellion, Pedro del Barco fled from Cuzco, but he was seized at 
Lima by Gonzalo'a cruel old Lieutenant Carbajal, and hanged on a tree 
outside the walls of the town. The half-caste orphan children of Barco 
were adopted and treated with great kindness by Garcilasso de la Vega, 
the historian's father. One was a schoolfellow of the historian, and was 
afterwards banished to Chile by the Viceroy Toledo. 


On the 25th of March^ the Captain Hernando Pizarro 
entered Caxamalca with all the Christians he had taken 
with him^ and with the Captain Chilicuchima. The Go- 
vernor gave him and his companions a very good reception. 
He brought from the mosque twenty-seven loads of gold 
and two thousand marcs of silver ; and he delivered to the 
Governor the report^ which was drawn up by Miguel Estete,^ 
the inspector, who accompanied him on the journey. This 
report is as follows : — 


Of the journey made by El Senor Captain Hernando Pizarro, 
by order of the Governor, Ids brotJier, from the city of 
Caxamalca to Parcama,^ and thence to Xauxa. 

On Wednesday, the day of the Epiphany (which is 
vulgarly called the Festival of the three Kings), on the 5th 
of January, 1533, the Captain Fernando Pizarro" set out 
from the town of Caxamalca with twenty horse and a few 
arquebusiers. On that night he rested at some liuts which 
were five leagues from the town. Next day he dined at 
another town called Ychoca, where he was well received. 
They gave him what he required for himself and his people. 

^ This should be April. 

8 IMiguel Estete (or Astete) was the man who pulled the royal llautu 
or fringe from the head of Atahuallpa, when he was dragged from his 
litter. Astete kept it carefully ; and when the Viceroy, Marquis of 
Cauete, raised Sayri Tupac (son of Manco and grandson of Huayna 
Ccapac) to the nominal sovereignty, many years afterwards, Astete pre- 
sented him with the llautu of Atahuallpa. Astete settled at Huamanca, 
and his descendants now live at Cuzco. They were friends of the ill- 
fated Tupac Amaru in 1782, and consistent opponents of Spanish tyranny. 
The kindness and hospitality of the good old Senora Astete, and her in- 
timate knowledge of Peruvian history, will long be remembered by those 
who knew Cuzco twenty years ago. 

' Pachacamac. 

- lie was accompanied by his brothers Juan and Gonzalo {Herrera). 


On the same day he came to pass the night at another 
small village called Huancasanga^ subject to the town of 
Guamachuco. Next morning he reached the town of Gua- 
machuco, which is large, and is situated in a valley sur- 
rounded by mountains. It has a beautiful view and good 
lodgings. The Lord of the place is called Guamanchoro, 
by whom the Captain and his companions were well re- 
ceived. Here arrived a brother of Atabaliba, who was 
hurrying the gold up from Cuzco/ and the Captain learnt 
from him that the Captain Chilicuchima was twenty days' 
journey off, and that he was bringing the treasure that 
Atabaliba had sent for. When he found that the treasure 
was so far off, the Captain sent a messenger to the 
Governor, to ask him what should be done, adding that he 
would not advance until he received further orders. In 
this town some Indians reported that Chilicuchima was far 
off; and some principal men, having been bribed, stated 
that Chilicuchima was only seven leagues distant, in the 
town of Andamarca, with 20,000 men of war, and that they 
were coming to kill the Christians and to liberate their 
Lord. The chief who said this confessed that he had dined 
with him on the previous day. A companion of this chief, 
who was taken aside, made the same statement. The Cap- 
tain, therefore, resolved to go in search of Chilicuchima, 
and, having mustered his men, he commenced the march. 
He passed that night at a small village, subject to Guama- 

» Garcilasso says that, as Hernando Pizarro and his party were march- 
ing along a mountain side, they saw a golden line on the opposite side 
shining like the sun. It turned out to be a long train of Indians who 
had set down the golden vases they were bringing from Cuzco in rows, 
to rest ; they were in charge of a brother of Atahuallpa, named Quillis- 
cacha. This is the Yllescas of the Spanish writers. 

The above story was told to Garcilasso by several people in Peru, and 
by Don Gabriel Pizarro in Spain, who had it from Don Juan Pizarro de 
Orellana, one of those who accompanied Hernando Pizarro to Pachaca- 

76 H. rizARRO resolvj:s to march to pachacamac. 

chuco, called Tambo ; and there lie received the same in- 
formation as had been given him before. In this village he 
had a good watch kept all night, and next morning he 
continued his journey with much circumspection. Before 
noon he reached the town of Andamarca, but he did not 
find the Captain, nor any news of him, beyond what had 
first been stated by the brother of Atabaliba, that he was 
in a town called Xauxa, with much gold, and that he was 
on his way. In this town of Andamarca he received the 
reply of the Governor, which was that Chilicuchima and 
the gold were far off, that he had the bishop of the mosque 
of Pachacama in his power, and that, as to the great 
wealth of gold in the mosque, the Captain should make 
inquiries respecting the road, and if it seemed good to him 
to go there, he might go ; as those who had gone to Cuzco 
would return in the meanwhile. The Captain ascertained 
the distance and the nature of the road to the mosque; and, 
although his companions were badly shod,* and otherwise 
indifferently furnished for so long a march ; he considered 
that he would be doing good service in going to collect 
that gold, which the Indians would not be able to bring 
away ; and that it was desirable to examine that land, and 
to ascertain whether it was suitable for Christian settle- 
ments. Although he had information that there were many 
rivers, and bridges of network, and long marches, and 
difficult passes, he yet resolved to go, and he took with him 
certain chiefs who knew the country. 

He commenced his journey on the 1 4th of January, and 
on the same day he crossed some difficult passes, and two 
rivers, passing the night at a village called Totopamba, 

* Herrage. The word would properly apply only to horses. The 
Italian translation of Gaztelii renders it as in the text. Ternaux Corn- 
pans, however, uses the word arms instead of shoes. I suspect that Xeres 
really intended to say that both men and horses wore badly off for shoes, 
and that he used the word for horse shoes to include all, instead of using 
two words. 


which is on a steep declivity.^ The Indians received him 
well and gave him good food, and all he required for the 
night, and men to carry his baggage. Next day he left 
this village, and reached another called Corongo, where he 
passed the night. Half way there was a great pass of 
snow, and all the way there were many flocks with their 
shepherds, who have their houses in the mountains, as in 
Spain. In this village they were given food, and all they 
required, and Indians to carry the loads. This village is 
subject to Guamachuco. Next day they started and came 
to another small village called Piga, where they passed the 
night. They found no inhabitants, as they had run away 
from fear. This was a very severe march, for they had to 
descend a flight of steps cut out of the stone, which was 
very dangerous for the horses. Next day, at dinner time, 
they reach a large village in a valley, and a very rapid river 
flowed across the road. It was spanned by two bridges 
close together, made of network in the following manner. 
They build a foundation near the water, and raise it to a 
great height ; and from one side of the river to the other 
there are cables made of reeds like osiers, but as thick as 
a man's thigh, and they are fastened to great stones. From 
one cable to the other is the width of a cart. Smaller cords 
are interwoven between the cables, and great stones are 
fastened beneath, to steady them. By one of these bridges 
the common people cross over, and a porter is stationed 
there to receive transit dues; while the Lords and Captains 
use the other, which is always closed, but they opened it 
for the Captain and his followers, and the horses crossed 
over very well. 

The Captain rested in this village for two days, because 
both men and horses were fatigued by the bad road. The 
Christians were very well received, and were supplied with 

' On this day the party crossed from the Maraiion to the coast water- 


food and all that they required. The Lord of this village 
was called Pumapaccha. They departed from it and came 
to a small village, where they were given all they wanted, 
and near it they crossed another bridge of network, like 
the former one. They passed the night two leagues further 
on, at another village, where the people came out to receive 
them as friends and gave food to the Christians, and 
Indians to carry their loads. This day^s march was through 
a valley covered with maize, with villages on either side of 
the road. The next day was Sunday. They started in the 
morning, and came to a village where the Captain and his 
companions were well received. At night they reached 
another village, where the people offered sheep and chicha 
and all other necessaries. All this land has abundant 
supplies of maize and many flocks ; and, as the Christians 
marched along the road, they saw the sheep crossing it. 
Next day, at dinner time, the Captain reached a great town 
called Huaras,^ the Lord of which was called Pumacapllai. 
He and his people supplied the Christians with provisions, 
and with Indians to carry the loads. This town is in a 
plain, and a river flows near it. Other villages were in 
sight, with flocks and maize fields. They had two hundred 
head of sheep in a yard, merely to supply the wants of the 
Captain and his men. The Captain departed in the after- 
noon, and stopped for the night at another village called 
Sucaracoai, where he was well received. The Lord of this 
village was named Marcocana. Here the Captain rested 
for one day, because both men and horses were tired. A 
strict watch was kept because the village was large, and 
Chilicuchima was near with 55,000 men. Next day they 
departed from this village, and, after marching through a 
valley, where there was much tilled land and many flocks, 
stopped for the night at a distance of two leagues, in a 

« Capital of the modern Department of Ancachs, in the valley of the 


small village called Pachicoto. Here the Captain left the 
royal road which leads to Cuzco, and took that of the coast 
valley. Next day he stopped for the night at a place called 
Marcara, the chief of which was named Corcara. Here 
there are pastures, and at a certain time of the year they 
bring the flocks to browse, as they do in Castillo and 
Estremadura. From this village the rivers flow to the sea, 
which makes the road very difficult, for all the country in- 
land is very cold, and with much water and snow. The 
coast is very hot, and there is very little rain. The rain is 
not sufficient for the crops, but the waters that flow from 
the mountains irrigate the land, which yields abundant 
supplies of provisions and fruits. 

Next day they departed from this village, and marching 
along the banks of a river, following its downward course 
through fields and fruit gardens, they stopped for the night 
at a village called Guaracanga. Next day they stopped at 
a large place near the sea called Parpunga. It has a strong 
house with seven encircling walls painted in many devices 
both inside and outside, with portals well-built like those of 
Spain, and two tigers at the principal doorway.'' The in- 
habitants were filled with fear at the sight of a people never 
before seen, and of the horses, which astonished them still 
more. The Captain spoke to them through the interpreter 
who accompanied him, to re-assure them, and they then did 
good service. 

In this village they came upon another broader road, 
made by the people of the coast, and bounded by walls on 
either side. The Captain rested for two days in this town 

' I think this Parpunga is the Parmonga of Cieza de Leon (p. 247) 
and the Parmunca of Garcilasso (ii, p. 195). Rivero spells it Para- 
manca (p. 259). Cieza de Leon described the fortress, the ruins of 
■which are also mentioned by Proctor {Travels^ p. 175). Both Cieza de 
Leon and Proctor mention the paintings on the walls, alluded to in the 
text, by Astetc. See also Anticpiedades Peruanns, p. 288. 


of Parpunga to refresh his people and get them re-shod. 
On starting again, they crossed a river in balsas, the horses 
swimming. He passed the night at a village called Gua- 
mamayo/ which is in a ravine near the sea. Near it they 
had to cross another river with great difficulty by swimming, 
for it was much swollen, and flowing rapidly. They have 
no bridges across these coast rivers, because they become 
very wide when they are swollen. The lord of this village 
and his people did good service in assisting to carry the 
baggage across, and they gave very good food to the 
Christians, and men to carry their loads. The Captain 
and his followers set out from this village on the 9th day of 
January,^ and passed the night in another village subject to 
Guamamayo, and three leagues from it by the road. The 
greater part was inhabited, and there were tilled fields, 
trees, fruit gardens, and a clean walled road. Next day 
the Captain stopped at a very large village near the sea, 
called Huara.^ This town is well situated, and contains 
large edifices for lodging. The Christians were well served 
by the chiefs and the Indians, who supplied them with what 
they required for the day. On the following day the 
Captain stopped at a village called Llachu, to which he 
gave the name of " the town of the partridges," because 
there were many partridges kept in cages in all the houses." 
The Indians of this village were friendly and did good 
service. The chief of this village did not make his appearance. 

^ This is the Huaman-mayu, or " Falcon river", mentioned by Cieza 
de Leon. It is now called La Barranca. The breadth of the channel 
is about a quarter of a mile, and during the rains it is completely full, 
and often impassable. See also Ciarcilasso, ii, p. 185. 

® This date must be either a misprint or a mistake of Astete. They 
left Cassa-marca on Wednesday, January 5th. On the 9th they were 
at Andamarca. By following their itinerary, it will be found that the 
date in the text should be January 30th. 

^ The modern town and river of Huara. The port, at the mouth of 
the river, is Huacho. * This may be Chancay. 


The Captain stai'ted rather early next morning, because he was 
informed that the march would be long, and he reached a large 
village called Suculacumbi at dinner time, a distance of five 
leagues. The Lord of the village and his Indians were 
friendly, and supplied all the food that was necessary for 
that day. At the hour of vespers they set out from this 
village, in order to reach the town where the mosque is on 
the next day. They crossed a great river by a ford/ and 
marched along a road with a wall on each side, passing the 
night at a place belonging to the town, and at a distance of 
a league and a half from it.* 

The next day was Sunday, the 30th of January.^ The 
Captain departed from this village, and, without leaving 
groves and villages,^ he reached Pachacama, which is the 
town where the mosque stands. Halfway there is another 
village, where the Captain dined.''' The Lord of Pachacama 
and the principal men came out to receive the Captain and 
the Christians, and showed a desire to be friends with the 
Spaniards. The Captain went to lodge, with his followers, 
in some large chambers in one part of the town.^ He said 
that he had come, by order of the Governor, for the gold of 
that mosque, and that they were to collect it and deliver it 

^ The river llimac. They must have passed over the site of the future 
city of Lima. 

* Marching by the upper road, at the foot of the mountains, they 
came to the village of Pachacamac, some miles up the valley, with its 
groves of chirimoyas and suchis (Plumieria). A charming spot. 

= This date should be Sunday, February 5th. January 30th was on 
a Monday. 

8 The valley of Lurin, on the left bank of the stream. The ruined 
city and temple are in the desert, on the right bank. 

' Not now existing. There is a hacienda, on an isolated rock over- 
looking the rich vale of Lurin, called Bella Vista, half-way between the 
village of Pachacamac and the ruins of the city and temple. 

^ These are courts rather than chambers, of great extent, with smaller 
chambers and recesses opening upon them, all built of immense adobes. 
They are still standing. 


up, or to convey it to where the Governor then was. All 
the principal men of the town and the attendants of the 
Idol assembled and replied that they would give it, but 
they continued to dissimulate and make excuses. At last 
they brought a very little, and said that they had no more. 
The Captain dissimulated also, and said that he wished to 
go and see the Idol they had, and he went. It was in a 
good house, well painted, in a very dark chamber with a 
close fetid smell. Here there was a very dirty Idol made of 
wood, and they say that this is their God who created them 
and sustains them, and gives them their food. At the foot 
of the Idol there were some offerings of gold, and it was 
held in such veneration that only the attendants and 
servants, who, as they say, were appointed by it, were 
allowed to officiate before it. No other person might enter, 
nor is any other considered worthy even to touch the walls 
of the house. The Captain ascertained that the Devil 
frequented this Idol, and spoke with his servants, saying 
diabolical things, which were spread over all the land. 
They look upon him as God, and offer many sacrifices to 
him. They come to this Devil, from distances of three hun- 
dred leagues, with gold and silver and cloth. Those that 
arrive, go to the porter and beg that their gift may be ac- 
cepted. He enters and speaks with the Idol, who says that he 
consents. Before any of his ministers may enter to minister 
to him, they say that they must fast for many days and refrain 
from women. In all the streets of this town, and at its prin- 
cipal gates, and round this house, there are many wooden 
Idols, which they worship as imitations of their Devil. It was 
ascertained from many lords of this land that, from the town 
of Catamez,^ which is at the commencement of this govern- 
ment, all the people of this coast serve this mosque with 
gold and silver, and offer a certain tribute every year. 
There were houses and superintendents to receive the 
'•' Atacamcs, on the coast of Ecuador. 


tribute, where they found some gold, and there were signs 
that much more had been taken away. Many Indians de- 
posed that the gold was removed by order of the Devil. I 
omit many things that might be said touching the worship 
of this Idol, to avoid prolixity. But it is believed among 
the Indians that this Idol is their God, that he can destroy 
them if they offend him and do not serve him well, and that 
all the things in the world are in his hands. The people 
were so shocked and terrified at the Captain having merely 
gone in to see it, that they thought the Idol would destroy 
all the Christians. But the Spaniards gave the Indians to 
understand that they were in a great error, and that he who 
spoke from the inside of the Idol was the Devil, who de- 
ceived them. They were told that from henceforth they 
must not believe him, nor do what he advised them ; and 
were taught other things touching their idolatries. 

The Captain ordered the vault, in which the Idol was, to 
be pulled down, and the Idol to be broken before all the 
people. He then told them many things touching our 
Holy Catholic Faith, and he taught them the sign of the 
cross >i<, that they might be able to defend themselves 
against the Devil. This town of Pachacama is very large. 
Adjoining the mosque there is a house of the Sun, well 
built, and situated on a hill, with five surrounding walls. 
There are houses with terrace roofs as in Spain. The town 
appears to be old, judging from the ruined houses it con- 
tains ; and the greater part of the outer wall has fallen. 
The name of the principal lord is Taurichumbi. The neigh- 
bouring lords came to the town to see the Captain, with 
presents of the products of their land, and with gold and 
silver. They wondered greatly that the Captain should 
have dared to enter where the Idol was, and to see it 

The Lord of Malaque,^ named Lincoto, came to offer 
' Mala, a coast valley to the south of Pachacamac. 


obedience to his Majesty, and brought a present of gold and 
silver. The Lord of Poax, named Alincai, did the same. 
The Lord of Gualco/ named Guarilli, also brought gold and 
silver. The Lord of Chincha/ with ten of his chief men, 
came with a present of gold and silver. This Lord said 
that his name was Tamviambea. The Lord of Guaxcha- 
paicho, and the Lord of Colixa named Aci, the Lord of 
Sallicaimarca named Yspilo, and other principal Lords of 
the surrounding country, brought in" presents of gold and 
silver, which, joined to that taken out of the mosque, made 
ninety thousand pesos.^ The Captain talked very kindly to 
all these Chiefs, rejoicing at their coming. He commanded 
them, in the name of his Majesty, always to behave in the 
same way, and dismissed them, well satisfied. 

In this town of Pachacama, the Captain Hernando Pizarro 
received news that Chilicuchima,^ a Captain of Atabaliba, 
was at a distance of four days' journey with a large force, 
and with the gold ; and that he would not march onwards, 
but declared that he was ready to fight the Christians. 
The Captain sent a messenger to him, urging him to con- 
tinue his march with the gold, as his master was in prison ; 
telling him that he was long behind his time, and that the 
Governor was angry at his delay, as he had been expected 
for many days. He sent many other messages, urging him 
to come, as he was unable to go and meet him where he 
then was, because the road was bad for the horses ; and 
arranging that the one who reached a certain village on the 
road first should wait there for the other. Chilicuchima 

- Huarcu. The modern name of this rich valley is Cafiete. It con- 
tains several flourishing sugar estates. 

» The next valley, south of Cafiete. 

■• It was said, according to Herrera, that the Priests concealed four 
hundred loads of gold and silver, and that Hernando Pizarro only col- 
lected nine hundred castellanos. Dec. v, lib. ii, cap. 3, p. 54. 

^ Chalcuchima. 



sent a message in reply, saying that he would do what the 
Captain desired, and that he had no other intention. 

The Captain then set out from the town of Pachacama, 
to form a junction with Chilicuchima. He marched by the 
same road as he had come, until he reached Huara, 
which is on the coast near the sea. Then he left the coast 
and marched into the interior. The Captain Hernando 
Pizarro left the town of Huara on the 3rd of March, and 
advanced along a road on the bank of a river during the 
whole day, where there were many groves of trees. He 
passed the night at a village on the banks of the river. 
The village where the Captain slept belongs to the town of 
Huara, and is called Guaranga. Next day the Captain left 
this village, and reached another called Aillon, near the 
mountains. It is subject to a larger place called Aratambo, 
which is rich in flocks and maize crops. 

On the 5th of March he passed the night at a village be- 
longing to Caxatambo, called Chincha. On the road they 
had to cross a pass where the snow was very deep, reaching 
to the girths of the horses. This village has large flocks. 
The Captain remained there for two days. On Saturday, 
the 7th of March, he set out, and passed the night at 
Caxatambo. This is a large town, situated in a deep valley, 
where there are many flocks, and all along the road there 
were sheepfolds. The chief of this village is called Sachao, 
and he did good service to the Spaniards. At this town 
the Captain changed his route, in order to take the broad 
road by which Chilicuchima would come, which entailed a 
flank march of three days. Here the Captain made inquiries 
whether Chilicuchima had passed, in order to form a junc- 
tion. All the Indians said that he had passed with the 
gold ; but it afterwards appeared that they had been told to 
say this, that the Captain might be induced to march on- 
wards ; while he remained in Xauxa, with no intention of 
moving. The Captain, however, considered that these 


Indians seldom spoke the truth ; so he determined, al- 
though it entailed great trouble and danger, to march to 
the royal road by which Chilicuchiraa must go, in order to 
ascertain whether he had already passed. If he had not 
gone on, the Captain resolved to seek him out, wherever he 
might be, as well to secure the gold as to disperse his 

The Captain, with his followers, took the way leading to 
a large village called Pombo, which is on the royal road. 
On Monday, the 9th of March, they slept at a village, 
situated amongst mountains, called Diu. The chief of this 
village was friendly, and gave the Christians all they re- 
quired for the night. The Governor started early next 
morning, and passed the following night in a small village 
of shepherds, near a lake of sweet water, about three 
leagues in circuit;^ on a plain where there were large 
flocks of sheep with very fine wool. Next day, which 
was Wednesday, in the morning, the Captain and his com- 
panions reached the village of Pombo,'' and the Lords of 
Pombo came out to meet him, with some. Captains of Ata- 
baliba who were there with troops. Here the Captain 
found one hundred and fifty arrobas of gold, which Chili- 
cuchima had sent, while he himself remained with his forces 
in Xauxa. When the Captain had taken up his quarters, 
he asked the Captains how it was that Chilicuchima had 
sent that gold, and had not come himself according to 
orders. They answered that it was because he was in great 
fear of the Christians, and also because he was waiting for 
more gold that was coming from Cuzco, as he did not like 
to come himself with so little. 

The Captain Hernando Pizarro' sent a messenger from 
this village to Chilicuchima, to let him know that as he had 

« This seems to have been the lake of Lauricocha, the source of the 

' I'limpn of Garcilafeso de la Vega, the modern Bombon. 


not come, he would go to him, and that he need have no 
fear. The Captain rested for one day in that village to 
refresh the horses, in case it should be necessary to fight. 
On Friday, the 14th of March, the Captain set out from the 
village of Pombo, with his horse and foot, to go to Xauxa. 
That night was passed in a village called Xacamalca, six 
leagues from Pombo, over level ground. On this plain 
there is a lake of sweet water which commences near this 
village, and has a circuit of eight or ten leagues.^ The lake 
has villages all round its shores, and large flocks, while in 
its waters are birds and small fish.^ The father of Atabaliba 
had many balsas in this lake, which were brought from 
Tumbez for his amusement. A river flows out of the lake 
to the village of Pombo, and a branch of it is very deep and 
rapid. They can float by it to a bridge near the village; 
and those who pass pay dues as in Spain. All along the 
banks of this river there are large flocks, and the name of 
Guadiana was given to it, because of the resemblance to 
that river in Spain. 

On Saturday, the 15th of the month, the Captain left the 
village of Xacamalca, and after marching three leagues he 
came to a house, where he and his men were well supplied 
with food. He passed that night three leagues further on, 
at a town called Tarma, which is on the slope of a mountain. 
Here he was lodged in a painted house, which contained 
good rooms. The chief of this place behaved well, both 
in supplying food and men to carry loads. On Sunday 
morning the Captain set out rather early from this village, 

8 The lake of Bombon or Chinchay-cocha. It is thirty-six miles long, 
by six broad, and 12,940 feet above the sea. The plain or basin in 
which it lies is forty-live miles long. The river of Xauxa flows out of 

the lake. 

9 A great number of large and beautiful water fowl, including the 
scarlet flamingo, and several varieties of snipe, frequent the banks of 
the lake, which arc overgrown with reeds. See Von Tschudi and 


having a long marcli before him. He caused his men to 
advance in order of battle^ because he suspected some 
treachery, not having received any answer from Chili- 
cuchima. At the hour of vespers he reached a village called 
Yanaimalca, where the people came out to him. Here he 
received news that Chilicuchima was not in Xauxa, which 
increased his suspicions. The Captain was now only a 
league from Xauxa, so after dinner he again marched on- 
wards, and, having come in sight of the town, he saw many 
bodies of men from a hill ; but he could not make out 
whether they were soldiers or townspeople who had as- 
sembled for some festival. 

As soon as the Captain arrived, and before he dismounted, 
he asked for Chilicuchima, and the people answered that he 
was at some other village, and that he would return next 
day. He had absented himself on pretence of business 
until he might learn from the Indians who came with the 
Captain the intentions of the Spaniards ; for he saw that he 
had committed a fault in not having kept his promise, and 
that the Captain had come eighty leagues in pursuit of him. 
These considerations made him think that the Spaniards came 
to seize or kill him, and he had absented himself from fear 
of them, especially of those who were on horseback. The 
Captain had with him a son of the old Cuzco who, when he 
heard of the absence of Chilicuchima, said that he wished 
to go where he was, and set out in a litter. All that night 
the horses were saddled and bridled, and the Lords of the 
town were told that no Indian was to appear in the square, 
because the horses were angry and would kill them. Next 
day that son of the Cuzco returned with Chilicuchima, both 
in litters, and numerously attended. On entering the square 
they alighted, and, leaving all their servants, they went on 
foot, with a few attendants, to the house occupied by the 
Captain Hernando Pizarro, for Chilicuchima to see him and 
offer his excuses for not having fulfilled his promise, or come 


out to receive him. He said his business had prevented 
him from doing more. The Captain asked why he had not 
come to meet him, as he had promised. Chilicuchima an- 
swered that his master AtabaUba had sent orders to him to 
remain where he was. The Captain then said that he felt 
no anger against him, but that he must accompany him 
back to the Governor, who had his master AtabaHba a 
prisoner, and who would keep him until he had given up the 
gold that had been demanded. The Captain added that he 
knew how much gold there was, and that it must be de- 
livered up, but he assured Chilicuchima that, although he 
must accompany him back, he would be well treated. Chili- 
cuchima replied that his Lord had sent to order him to do 
otherwise, and not to go, because that country was lately 
conquered, and might again rebel if he left it. Hernando 
Pizarro conversed with him for some time, and finally it was 
arranged that they should pass the night there, and again 
discuss the matter in the morning. The Captain desired to 
carry his point by fair means, because he was anxious to 
avoid disturbances, lest it should compromise the safety of 
three Spaniards who had gone to the city of Cuzco. Next 
morning Chilicuchima came to the Captain^s lodging and 
said that, as he desired him to accompany the Spaniards, 
he could not refuse to obey, and that he was ready to go, 
leaving another Captain with the troops at Xauxa. On 
that day he got together about thirty loads of gold ; and 
after marching for two days they met thirty or forty loads. 
During those days the Spaniards kept a good look out, the 
horses being kept saddled night and day ; for this Captain 
of Atabaliba had so large a force that if he had made a 
night attack on the Spaniards he would have done much 

The town of Xauxa is very large. It is situated in a 
beautiful valley, and enjoys a temperate climate. A very 
large river flows near the town. The land is fertile. The 


town is built like those of Spain, with regular streets, and 
many subject villages are in sight. The town and district 
are very populous, and the Spaniards saw one hundred 
thousand people assemble every day in the principal square. 
The market places and streets were also crowded. There 
were men whose duty it was to count all these people, and 
to know who came in for the service of the troops ; and 
other men had to watch and take note of all who entered 
the town. Chilicuchima had stewards whose duty it was to 
supply provisions, and many carpenters who worked in 
wood, and many other men to attend upon his wants and 
wait on his person. There were three or four porters in 
his house, and both in his household service, and in every- 
thing else he imitated his Lord. He was feared throughout 
this land, for he was a brave warrior, and, under orders 
from his Lord, he had conquered more than two hundred 
leagues of country, and had had many encounters both in 
the plains and in the passes, in all of which he had been 
victorious, and in none had he been vanquished throughout 
all that land. 

On Friday, the 20th of March, the Captain Hernando 
Pizarro departed from that city of Xauxa to return to Caxa- 
inalca, accompanied by Chilicuchima. He marched by the 
same road to the village of Pompo, where he stayed for the 
day he arrived, and one more. On Wednesday he set out 
from this village of Pompo, and marching over plains 
covered with flocks, he passed the night at some large build- 
ings. On that day it snowed heavily. Next day he came 
to a village amongst the mountains called Tambo, which is 
near a large and deep river, where there is a bridge. There 
is a flight of stone steps to descend to the river, and if the 
position was defended, much mischief might be done. The 
Captain received good service from the Lord of this village, 
and was supplied with all that he and his party required. 
They made a great festival out of respect for the Captain 


Hernando Pizarro, and because Chilicuclnima accompanied 
him. Next day they came to a village called Tomsucancha, 
the lord of which, named Tillima, received them well. There 
were plenty of Indians fit for service ; for, though the vil- 
lage was small, many had assembled from the surrounding 
country to see the Spaniards. In this village there are small 
sheep with very fine wool, like those of Spain. Next day 
they reached a village called Guaneso,^ a march of five 
leagues, the greater part over a paved road, with channels 
of water by the side. They say that the road was paved on 
account of the snow, which, at a certain season of the year, 
falls over that land. This town of Guaneso is large. It is 
situated in a valley, surrounded by steep mountains, the 
valley being three leagues in circuit. On the side leading 
to Caxamalca there is a long and very steep ascent. The 
Captain and his followers were very well received, and 
during the two days that they remained, the inhabitants 
celebrated several feasts. This town has other surrounding 
villages under its jurisdiction. It is a land of many flocks. 

On the last day of March the Captain departed from this 
town, and reached a bridge over a large river, built of very 
stout timber. There were guard^s stationed there to receive 
transit dues, as is their custom. They passed the night at 
a distance of four leagues from the town, where Chilicuchima 
had caused all necessary preparations to be made. Next 
day, being the 1st of April, they reached a village called 
Piscomarca. It is on the slope of a very steep mountain. 
Its chief is named Parpay. Next day the Captain departed 
from this village, and, after a march of three leagues, arrived 
at a good village called Huari,^ where there is a large and 
deep river, over which there is another bridge. This posi- 
tion is very strong, there being deep ravines on either flank. 
Chilicuchima said that here he had fought a battle with 
the troops of the Cuzco, who guarded the pass, defending 

' lluanuco. ^ In the valley of the Maranon. 


it for two or three days. When those of Cuzco were de- 
feated, and some of their enemies had crossed the river, 
they destroyed the bi-idge, so that Chilicuchima and his 
troops swam across, and killed many of the men of Cuzco. 

Next day the Captain set out, and, after a march of five 
leagues, he passed the night at a village called Guacango. 
Next day he reached the large town of Piscobaraba,^ which 
is on the side of a mountain. The chief is called Tauquame; 
and he and his people received the Captain well, and did 
good service to his followers. Half-way to this town, at 
Huacacamba, there is another deep river with two bridges 
of net-work close together, resting on a foundation of stone 
rising from the water; like those I have mentioned before. 
From one side to the other there are cables of reed, the 
size of a man's thigh, and between are woven many stout 
cords ; to which large stones are fastened, for the purpose 
of steadying the bridge. The horses crossed this bridge 
without trouble ; but it is a nervous thing to pass over it 
for the first time, though there is no danger, as it is very 
strong. There are guards at all these bridges, as in Spain. 
Next day the Captain departed from Piscobamba, and 
reached some buildings, after a march of five leagues. Next 
day he came to a village called Agoa, which is subject to 
Piscobamba. It is a good village among the mountains, and 
is surrounded by fields of maize. The chief and his people 
supplied what was required for the night, and next morning 
provided porters for the baggage. Next day the Captain 
marched for four leagues over a very rugged road, and 
passed the night at Conchuco.* This village is in a hollow. 
Half a league before reaching it, there is a wide road cut in 

' See Cieza de Leon, p. 293. He says that Piscobamba is ciglit leagues 
from Iluaraz, over very rugged mountains. See also Garcilasso de la 
Vega, ii, p. 134. 

■* See Cieza de Leon, p. 286. It is the Cunchucu of Garcilasso, ii, p. 


steps in the rock, and there are many difficult passes^ and 
places which might easily be defended. Next day they set 
out, and reached a place called Andamarca, which is the 
point where they had diverged to go to Pachacama. At 
this town the two royal roads to Cuzco unite. ^ From Au- 
damarca to Pombo^ there are three leagues over a very 
rugged road ; and stone steps are cut for the ascents and 
descents ; while on the outer side there is a stone wall, to pro- 
tect the traveller from the danger of slipping. If any man 
fell, he would be dashed to pieces ; and it is an excellent 
thing for the horses, as they would fall if there was no 
flanking wall. In the middle of the road there is a bridge 
of stone and wood, very well built, between two masses of 
rock. At one end of the bridge there are well-built lodgings 
and a paved court, where, according to the Indians, the 
lords of the land had banquets and feasts when they travelled 
by that road. 

From this place the Captain Hernando Pizarro went by 
the same stages as he came, until he reached the city of 
Caxamalca, which he entered, with Chilicuchima, on the 
25th of May/ 1533. Here a thing was seen that had never 
been witnessed before since the Indies were discovered. 


When Chilicuchima passed through the gates of the place 
where his master was imprisoned, he took a light load from 
one of the Indian porters and put it on his back, an example 
which was followed by many chiefs who accompanied him. 
Thus laden, he and the others entered where their Lord was; 
and when Chilicuchima saw him, he raised his hands to the 
Sun, and gave thanks that he had been permitted to enjoy 
the sight. Then, with much reverence, and weeping, he 

* One leading, by Huaras, to the coast road at Parmunca ; the other 
being the sierra road to Cuzco, by Xauxa. 

" The modern Pomabamba. 

' This should be April. At p. 90, March is given as the date. These 
are probably misprints. 


approached his Lord^ and kissed his face, hands, and feet. 
The other chiefs, his companions, did the same, Atabaliba 
maintained a mien so majestic that, though there was not a 
man in the kingdom that he loved more than Chilicuchima, 
he did not look in his face or take more notice of him than 
of the vilest Indians that came into his presence. This 
taking up of a load to enter the presence of Atabaliba is a 
ceremony which was performed for all the Lords who have 
reigned in that land. I, Miguel de Estete, the overseer, 
who went on the journey that the Captain Hernando Pizarro 
undertook, now give this account of all that happened. 

Miguel Estete. 


The masters of the six ships which were at the port of 
San Miguel, being unable to maintain their crews, had re- 
quested the Governor to pay and despatch them. The 
Governor called a Council for the purpose of making the 
necessary arrangements and for reporting what had hap- 
pened to his Majesty. It was decided that all the gold 
should be melted down which had been brought to Caxa- 
malca by order of Atabaliba, as well as all that might arrive 
before the melting was finished. As soon as it was melted 
and distributed, the Governor would not be detained any 
longer, but would proceed to form a settlement, in obedience 
to the orders of his Majesty. 

The publication of this resolution and the commencement 
of the melting took place on the 3rd of May, 1533. After 
ten days one of three Christians who went to the city of 
Cuzco arrived. He was the public notary, and he reported 
that that city of Cuzco had been taken possession of in the 
name of his Majesty. He also gave an account of the road, 


on which he said there were thirty principal towns^ without 
counting Cuzco, and many other small villages. He said 
that Cuzco was as large as had been reported, and that it is 
situated on a hill side near a plain ; that the streets were 
very regularly arranged and pavedj and that in the eight 
days that he had been there he had not been able to see 
everything. He saw a well-built house entirely plated with 
gold, quadrangular, and measuring three hundred and fifty 
paces from corner to corner. Of these gold plates they 
took down seven hundred, which together weighed 
500 pesos. From another house the Indians pulled off a 
quantity weighing 200,000 pesos ; but, as it was much al- 
loyed, having but seven or eight carats the peso, they would 
not receive it. Besides these two, they did not see any 
other houses plated with gold ; but the Indians did not 
permit them to see all the city. They judged from what 
they did see that it was very rich. They found the Captain 
Quizquiz in the city, holding it for Atabaliba with a garrison 
of thirty thousand men, because it is threatened by Caribs^ 
and other tribes who wage war against that city. He re- 
ported many other things that there were in Cuzco, and 
that it was well ordered, and that a chief was coming with 
the other two Spaniards with seven hundred plates of gold 
and much silver that was delivered to the chief at Xauxa, 
left behind by Chilicuchima. The whole quantity of gold 
collected by them was one hundred and seventy-eight loads, 
and these loads were in paliqueres,^ each borne by four 
Indians. They were bringing little silver, and the gold was 

* The Spaniards had very hazy ideas about the Caribs ; they used the 
word as a vague term to apply to any Indians in arms, of whom they 
knew nothing. The garrison at Cuzco, commanded by Quizquiz, was 
no doubt threatened by the defeated, but still faithful, troops of the 
legitimate Ynca. . 

^ This is not a Spanish word. Ternaux Compans thinks that the 
word means a litter ; perhaps a corruption of the Indian word palkee or 
palanquin ; which may have come into use through the Portuguese. 


delivered to the Christians by little and little, and slowly, 
because it was necessary to employ many Indians, who had 
to go from village to village to collect it. He calculated 
that the gold which was on the road would arrive at Caxa- 
malca in about a month. It actually arrived on the 13th 
of June, and consisted of two hundred loads of gold and 
twenty-five of silver. The gold appeared to be of more 
than one hundred and thirty carats. After the arrival of 
this first instalment another sixty loads of less fine gold 
came in. The greater part was in plates, like the boards of 
a box, and three to four 'palmos in length. These had been 
taken from the walls of the house, and .they had holes in 
them, showing that they had been secured by nails. They 
completed the founding and partitioning of all this gold and 
silver on the day of Santiago, the gold and silver being 
weighed by a Romana} The account was then taken, all 
being reduced to good gold ; and it was found to make a 
total of 326,539 pesos of good gold.^ After deducting the 
fees of the founder, the Royal fifth amounted to 262,259 
pesos of pure gold. Of the silver there were 51,610 marcs, 
of which 10,121 marcs of silver formed the Royal fifth.^ All 
the rest, after the Royal fifths and the fees of the founder 
had been deducted, was divided amongst all the conquerors 
who accompanied the Governor. The horsemen each re- 
ceived 8,880 'pesos of gold and 362 marcs of silver.* The 
foot soldiers each had 4,440 pesos, and 181 marcs of silver, 
some more and some less, according as the Governor con- 
sidered that each man deserved reward, with reference to 

' A steelyard. 

2 The Governor's own share was 200,000 pesos of gold and 50,000 in 
silver, besides the gold litter of Atahuallpa. 

3 Garcilasso gives the royal fifth at 546,250 pesos of gold and 105,750 
pesos of silver. 

■• Garcilasso says that the shares of these captains of cavalry was 
90,000 pesos of gold and 30,000 of silver. The sixty men had 720,000 
pesos of gold and 180,000 in silver. 



his services, position, and the labours he had gone through.^ 
A certain quantity of gold, which was set apart by the 
Governor before the partition took place, was given to the 
citizens of San Miguel, to those who came with the Captain 
Diego de Almagro,^ and to all the merchants and sailors 
who arrived afterwards. Thus everyone in the country re- 
ceived something; so that it might be called a general 
melting, as it was general to all.''' One remarkable thing in 

' Four captains of infantry got 90,000 pesos of gold and 30,000 of 
silver, and a hundred men got 900,000 pesos of gold and 135,000 of 

« Almagro got 30,000 jtjesos of gold and 10,000 of silver. ' 
' The value of the silver was reckoned at twenty per cent, of the gold. 
A ducat was worth eleven rials and one maravedi, or 375 maravedis. 
100 pesos of gold were equal to 120 of silver, and 120 pesos of silver 
were equal to 144 ducats. Therefore, 100 pesos of gold = 144 ducats. 


The Governor's share of gold 



„ „ silver 



Three Captains of Cavalry. Share of gold - 


11 11 ) 

, silver 


Four Captains of Infantry , 

gold - 


11 11 1 

, silver 


Sixty horsemen - - , 

gold - 

- 1,036,800 

11 " " 1 

, silver 


Hundred foot soldiers - , 

1 gold - 

- 1,296,000 

11 11 "1 

, silver 


The 240 men of Almagro , 

1 gold - 


11 11 " 1 

, silver 


The Captain Almagro - , 

1 gold - 


11 i» "1 

, silver 


The Royal Fifth 

1 gold - 


11 11 " ' 

, silver 


Increase of the refined silver 



Total ransom of Atahua 

- 4,605,670 

Of this sum 3,933,000 ducats was the value of the gold, and 372,670 
ducats the value of the silver. This may be considered equal to 
£3,.500,000 of our money. {G. de la Vega, Ft. ii, lib. i, cap. 38, p. 51.) 

In the division of plunder our author, Francisco de Xeres, as a horse- 


this melting was that on one day they melted 80,000 pesos. 
Usually the quantity was 50,000 to 60,000 pesos a day. 
The melting was done by the Indians, who have among 
them good silversmiths and melters, and they worked with 
nine forges. 

I must not omit to mention the prices which have been 
given for provisions and other goods in this country, though 
some are so high as to be incredible. Yet I can say with 
truth that I saw it, and that I bought some of the things. 
A horse was sold for 2,500 ptesos, and another for 3,300 pesos. 
The ordinary price of horses was 2,500 pesos, and they were 
difficult to get at that price. A jar of wine, of three azum- 
hres, sold for sixty pesos. I gave forty pesos for two azum- 
hres. A pair of high boots fetched thirty or forty pesos, and 
a pair of shoes as much ; a cloak one hundred to one hun- 
dred and twenty pesos ; a sword forty to fifty ; a string of 
garlics half a peso. All other things were in proportion. 
(A peso is as much as a castellano.) A sheet of paper sold 
for ten pesos. I gave twelve pesos for half an ounce of 
damaged saffron. Much more might be said of the high 
prices at which everything was sold ; and of the little store 
that was set by gold and silver. If one man owed any- 
thing to another, he paid it in a lump of gold, without 
weighing the gold, and being quite indifferent whether it 
was worth double the amount of the debt or not. Those 
who owed money went from house to house, followed by an 
Indian laden with gold, and seeking out their creditors to 
pay them. 

Having related how the melting and distributing of the 
gold and silver were finished, the wealth of the land, and how 
little store was set by gold and silver, as well by Spaniards 
as Indians, I will now say something of the place which 

man, received 362 marcos of silver and 8880 pesos of gold ; besides 94 
marcos and 2220 pesos, to be divided between himself and Pedro Sancho 
for Secretary's work. 


was subject to the Cuzco^ and now belongs to Atabaliba.^ 
They say that it contained two houses made of gold, and 
that the straws with which it was roofed were all made of 
gold. With the gold that was brought from' Cuzco, there 
were some straws made of solid gold, with their spikes, just 
as they would grow in the fields. If I was to recount all 
the different varieties in the shape of the pieces of gold, my 
story would never end. There was a stool of gold that 
weighed eight arrohas.^ There were great fountains with 
their pipes, .through which water flowed into a reservoir on 
the same fountains, where there were birds of different 
kinds, and men drawing water from the fountain, all made 
of gold. It was also ascertained from Atabaliba and Chili- 
cuchima, and many others, that in Xauxa Atabaliba had 
sheep and shepherds tending them, all made of gold ; and 
the sheep and shepherds were large, and of the size that 
they are met with in this land. These pieces belonged to 
his father, and he promised to give them to the Spaniards. 
They relate wonderful things of the wealth of Atabaliba and 
his father. 

Now I must mention a thing which should not be for- 
gotteni A chief, who was Lord of Caxamalca, appeared 
before the Governor and said to him through the inter- 
preters : "I would have you to know that, after Atabaliba 
was taken prisoner, he sent to Quito, his native land, and 
to all the other provinces, with ^orders to collect troops to 
march against you and your followers, and to kill you all; 
and all these troops are coming under the command of a 
great captain called Lluminabi.^ This army is now very 
near to this place. It will come at night and attack the 

8 The city of Cuzco. 

9 The tiana or throne of the Yncas. It fell to the share of Francisco 
Pizarro himself. According to Garcilasso it was worth 25,000 pesos of 
gold, (ii, lib. i, cap. 38.) 

' Rumi-Gaui, a general of Atahuallpa. The word means "Stone-eyed." 


camp, setting fire in all directions, and the first they will 
try to kill will be yourself, and they will deliver Atabaliba 
out of his prison. From Quito are coming two hundred 
thousand men of war, and thirty thousand Caribs who eat 
human flesh ; and from another province called Pacalta, and 
from other parts, come a great number of soldiers/' 

When the Governor heard this, he thanked the chief and 
did him much honour, and sent for a clerk to put it all down. 
Then he made further inquiries, and, having taken the 
statement to an uncle of Atabaliba, to some principal chiefs, 
and to some women, he found that all that the chief of Caxa- 
malca had said was true. 

The Governor then spoke to Atabaliba, saying : " What 
treason is this that you have prepared for me ? For me 
who have treated you with honour, like a brother, and have 
trusted in your words !" Then he told him all the informa- 
tion he had received. Atabaliba answered, saying : " Are 
you laughing at me ? You are always making jokes when 
you speak to me. What am I, and all my people, that we 
should trouble such valiant men as you are ? Do not talk 
such nonsense to me.'' He said all this without betraying a 
sign of anxiety ; but he laughed the better to conceal his 
evil design, and practised many other arts such as would 
suggest themselves to a quick-witted man. After he was a 
prisoner, the Spaniards who heard him were astounded to 
find so much wisdom in a barbarian. The Governor ordered 
a chain to be brought, which was fastened round the neck 
of Atabaliba. He then sent two Indians as spies to find 
out where this army was, for it was reported to be only 
seven leagues from Caxamalca. He wished to ascertain 
whether it was in such a position as that a hundred cavalry 
could be sent against it. But it was reported that the 
enemy was posted in a very rugged position, and that he 
was approaching nearer. As soon as the chains were put 
upon Atabaliba he had sent a messenger to his great 


Captain saying that the Governor had killed him, and on 
receiving this news the Captain and his army began to re- 
treat. But Atabaliba sent other messengers after the first, 
ordering them to advance without delay, and sending orders 
how and in what direction to march, and at what hour to 
attack the camp ; adding that he was still alive, but that if 
they delayed he would be killed. 

The Governor knew all this, and he ordered a careful watch 
to be kept in the camp. The cavalry were to go the rounds 
three times during the night ; fifty horsemen going each 
round, and at the rounds of daybreak the whole hundred and 
fifty horsemen. During these nights the Governor and his 
Captains never slept, but looked after the rounds, and saw 
that all were on the alert. The soldiers who slept during 
the watch did not let go their arms, and their horses were 
kept saddled. This watchfulness was continued in the camp 
until, at sunset one Saturday evening two Indians, of those 
who served the Spaniards, came in and reported that they 
had fled from the hostile army, which was only three leagues 
distant, and that on that or the next night the camp of the 
Christians would be attacked ; because they were marching 
rapidly in obedience to orders from Atabaliba. 

Then the Governor, with the concurrence of the officers 
of his Majesty, and of the captains and persons of expe- 
rience, sentenced Atabaliba to death. ^ His sentence was 
that, for the treason he had committed, he should die by 
burning, unless he became a Christian ; and this execution 
was for the security of the Christians, the good of the whole 
land, and to secure its conquest and pacification. For on 
the death of Atabaliba all his troops would presently dis- 

"^ " Atabalipa wept, and said that they should not kill him, that there 
was not an Indian in ihe land who would move without his orders, and 
that, he being prisoner, what could they fear ? I saw the Marquis weep 
with sorrow, at not being able to spare his life, by reason of the risk of 
his escaping." — Pedro Pizarro. 


persGj and would not have the courage to attack us or to 
obey his orders. 

They brought out Atabaliba to execution; and, when he 
came into the square, he said he would become a Christian. 
The Governor was informed, and ordered him to be baptized. 
The ceremony was performed by the very reverend Father 
Friar Vicente de Yalverde. The Governor then ordered 
that he should not be burnt, but that he should be fastened 
to a pole in the open space and strangled. This was done, 
and the body was left until the morning of the next day, 
when the Monks, and the Governor with the other Spaniards, 
conveyed it into the church, where it was interred with much 
solemnity, and with all the honours that could be shown it.^ 

3 The pretext for murdering Atahuallpa was false, and Xeres, the 
murderer's secretary, knew that it was false when he wrote this narrative. 
It was pretended that an Indian army was assembled at Huamachuco, 
and Hernando de Soto, who was a gentleman and no murderer, was sent, 
with a small force, ostensibly to ascertain the truth of the report, but 
really to get him out of the way. lie was accompanied by Rodrigo 
Orgonez, Pedi'o Ortiz de Orue, Miguel de Estete, and Lope Velez. 
Hernando Pizarro had already departed for Spain, to report the dis- 
covery and with good store of gold. 

Then Pizarro, Almagro, and the worst of the gang, with Friar Val- 
verde, determined to murder Atahuallpa, and thus get rid of an obstacle 
in their way. There was a mock trial. Pizarro and Almagro were the 
Judges, the Clerk of the Court was Sancho de Cuellar, and Filipillo, 
who had a malignant spite against Atahuallpa, was interpreter. The 
indictment was drawn up in the form of twelve questions : — 

1. Did you know Huayna Ccapac, and how many wives had he? 

2. Was Huascar the legitimate heir, and Atahuallpa a bastard? 

3. Had the Ynca other sons? 

4. Was Atahuallpa the heir by inheritance, or usurpation ? 

6. Was Huascar deprived by his father's will, or was he declared heir? 

6. Was Huascar murdered by order of Atahuallpa ? 

7. Was Atahuallpa an idolater, and did he enforce human sacrifices? 

8. Had Atahuallpa waged unjust wars ? 

9. Had Atahuallpa many concubines? 

10. Had Atahuallpa received and spent tribute, since the arrival of 
the Spaniards? 


Such was the end of this man, who had been so cruel. He 
died with great fortitude, and without shewing any feeling, 
saying that he entrusted his children to the Governor. 

11. Had Atahuallpa given treasure to his relations and captains, since 

the Spaniards came ? 

12. Had Atahuallpa ordered troops to be assembled to make war on 

the Spaniards ? 

Ten witnesses were examined, seven of whom were servants of the 
Spaniards, and Filipillo turned their words into what meaning he pleased. 
One witness, a captain named Quespi, suspected the interpreter, and 
would only answer Ari (Yes) and Manan (No), nodding and shaking 
his head, that all might understand. 

The few men of honour and respectability, then at Caxamarca, pro- 
tested against the murder. Their names are more worthy of remem- 
brance than those of the thirteen who crossed the line at the isle of Gallo. 
They were : besides, 1. Hernando de Soto. 

2. Francisco de Chaves,") brothers, natives 

3. Diego de Chaves, | of Truxillo. 

4. Francisco de Fuentes. 

5. Pedro de Ayala. 

6. Diego de Mora. 

7. Francisco Moscoso. 

8. Hernando de Haro. 

9. Pedro de Mendoza. 

10. Juan de Herrada. 

11. Alonzo de Avila. 

12. Bias de Atienza. 

They represented that Pizarro had no jurisdiction over a foreign king, 
like Atahuallpa ; that to kill a king who was a prisoner, and whose 
ransom they had taken, would bring shame and dishonour on the Spanish 
name ; that if he had done wrong the Emperor should judge him ; and 
they appealed from the iniquitous sentence to the justice of the Emperor, 
naming Juan de Herrada, one of their number, as the protector of the 
king Atahuallpa. But they were overruled, and the murder was perpe- 
trated. Two days afterwards Hernando de Soto returned, and reported 
that there was no Indian army near, and no insurrection. He found the 
Governor, by way of mourning, wearing a great felt hat slouched over 
his eyes. He was ju.stly indignant at the murder ; which Pizarro was 
unable to defend. He said: " Sir, you have done ill. It would have 
been right to have waited for our return ; for the accusation against Ata- 
baliba is false ; no armed men have been assembled." The Governor 
answered : " Now I see that I have been deceived." Pizarro blamed 


When they took his body to be buried there was loud 
mourning among the women and servants of his household. 
He died on Saturday, at the same hour that he was taken 

Valverde the Monk, and Riquelme the Royal Treasurer, who, he said, 
had urged hun to commit the crime ; and there were mutual recrimina- 

Soon afterwards, when the Spaniards left Cassamarca and were march- 
ing on Cuzco, Titu Atauchi, the brother of Atahuallpa, attacked them 
at Tocto, in the province of Huayllas, with six thousand men, and cap- 
tured eight Spaniards. Among his prisoners were Sancho de Cuellar, 
Francisco de Chaves, Hernando de Haro, Alonzo de Alarcon, and others. 
The Ynca Prince took them to Cassamarca, which place had then been 
abandoned by the Spaniards. Cuellar, who had been Clerk to the 
Court at the mock trial of Atahuallpa, got his deserts. He was publicly 
executed in the square of Cassamarca, at the same pole against which 
the Ynca was strangled. Alarcon, whose leg was broken, was carefully 
tended ; while Chaves and Haro, who had protested against the murder 
of Atahuallpa, were treated with the greatest kindness by the Indians. 
Prince Titu Atauchi made a treaty with them, in which it was stipulated 
that the Spaniards and Indians should be friends, that Manco (the legi- 
timate son of Huayna Ccapac) should succeed to the llautu and that all 
the Ynca laws in favour of the people, which were not opposed to 
Christianity, should be observed. He then set Chaves and his comrades 
free, with many good wishes ; and they went to Cuzco to try to get the 
treaty ratified by Pizarro, but without success. Titu Atauchi, who was 
& brave, generous, and able Prince, unfortunately died very soon after- 

It would be interesting to trace the fate of the twelve honourable men 
who protested against the murder of Atahuallpa. 

Hernando de Soto, as is well known, abandoned Peru and its cruel 
conquerors, discovered Florida, and found a grave in the bed of the 

Francisco de Chaves, a native of Truxillo, was afterwards employed 
in reducing the Conchucos. He was murdered at Lima in 1541, in at- 
tempting to defend the staircase against the assassins of Pizarro. Zarate 
says that when he died he was the most important personage in Peru, 
next to Pizarro. — Hist, del Peru, lib. iv, cap. 8. 

Diego de Mora settled at the new city, called Truxillo, on the coast 
of Peru. Gasca made him a Captain of Cavalry, and we last hear of 
him as receiving the appointment of Corregidor of Lima, for the Royal 
Audience, during the rebellion of Giron. 

Juan de Herrada was a staunch follower of Almagro. When that 
Captain made his expedition to Chile, his intimate friend Herrada was 


prisoner and defeated. Some said that it was for his sins 
that he died on the day and hour that he was seized. Thus 
he was punished for the great evils and cruelties that he 
had inflicted upon his vassals ; for all, with one voice, de- 
clare that he was the greatest and most cruel butcher that 
had been seen among men; that for a very slight cause he 
would destroy a village, such as some trivial fault com- 
mitted by a single man ; and that he killed ten thousand 

left behind at Ciizco, to bring reinforcements. Five months afterwards 
Herrada set out with more men, and, after enduring terrible hardships, 
reached Copiapo in Chile, returning with Almagro by the desert of 
Atacama. He conveyed to Almagro the Royal Provision, which granted 
that Captain one hundred leagues of country beyond the jurisdiction of 
Pizarro. This Provision was brought out from Spain by Hernando 
Pizarro, and the dispute as to the position of the frontier line led to the 
civil war and the death of Almagro. 

Bias de Atienza is enumerated by Balboa as one of the heroic adven- 
turers who crossed the line with Pizarro at the Isle of Gallo. (See note, 
p. 9.) He afterwards settled at Truxillo, on the Peruvian coast. But 
we hear of him in still earlier days. When Vasco Nuiiez came in sight 
of the South Sea in 1513, he sent out three scouting parties to explore, 
under Francisco Pizarro, Juan de Escaray, and Alonzo Martin. The 
latter found a canoe on the beach, and, stepping into it, called his men 
to witness that he was the first European who ever embarked on the 
South Sea. His example was followed by Bias de Atienza, who cried 
out that he was the second, {flerrera^ Dec. i, lib. x, cap. 2.) His 
daughter Inez de Atienza, the widow of Pedro de Arcos of Piura, was 
beloved by Pedro de Ursua, whom she accompanied on his expedition to 
discover El Dorado and Oraagua in 1560. After his murder she became 
the mistress of Lorenzo Salduendo, one of the pirates, and was herself 
murdered by the notorious pirate Aguirre. (See Search for El Dorado^ 
p. 85.) A certain Friar Bias de Atienza published a book at Lima, en- 
titled Relacion de los Religiosos^ in 1617 ; and there was a Missionary 
named Juan de Atienza, who died at Lima in 1592. These were pro- 
bably sons of the Conqueror and brothers of the lady Inez, (^Sol del 
Nuevo Mundo, p. 69.) 

I have not been able to discover the subsequent history of any of the 
other denouncers of the murder of Atahuallpa. Except Francisco de 
Chaves, Francisco de Fuentes, and Pedro de Mendoza, I find none in 
the list of first conquerors who received shares of Atahuallpa's ransom, 
so that the rest must have come with Almagro. 

106 A COMET. 

persons, and held all the country by tyranny, so that he was 
very heartily detested by all the inhabitants. 

Soon afterwards the Governor took another son of old 
Cuzco, named Atabaliba, who had shown a desire to be 
friendly to the Spaniards, and placed him in the lordship, 
in presence of the chiefs and lords of the surrounding dis- 
tricts, and of many other -Indians.* He ordered them to 
receive him as their lord, and to obey him as they had 
obeyed Atabaliba ; Tor that he was their proper lord, being 
legitimate son of old Cuzco. They all answered that they 
would receive him as their lord, and obey him as the 
Governor had ordered. 

Now I wish to -mention a notable thing. It is, that twenty 
days before this happened, and before there were any 
tidings of the army that Atabaliba had ordered to be 
assembled, it happened that Atabaliba was, one night, very 
cheerful with some Spaniards with whom he was conversing. 
Suddenly there appeared a sign in the heavens, in the 
direction of Cuzco, like a fiery comet, which lasted during 
the greater part of the night. When Atabaliba saw this 
sign he said that a great lord would very soon have to die 
in that land.^ 

When the Governor had placed the younger Atabaliba in 
the state and lordship of that land (as we have mentioned) 
the Governor told him that he must communicate to him 
the orders of his Majesty, and what he must do to becom^ 
his vassal. Atabaliba replied that he must retire during 
four days, without speaking to anyone, for such was the 

* Herrera says he was a son of Atahuallpa, named Toparpa. But 
this is not an Ynca name at all. He died soon afterwards. (Dec. v, 
lib. ill, cap. 5, p. 59.) 

* Garcilasso says it was a greenish-black comet, nearly as thick as a 
man. It was seen in July or August, 1533, and is certainly the one ob- 
served by AppiaUj according to Humboldt. On July 21st, 1533, standing 
high in the north, near the constellation of Perseus, it represented the 
sword which Perseus holds in his right hand. 


custom among them wlien a Lord died, that his successor 
might be feared and obeyed, and afterwards all yield 
obedience to him. So he was in retirement for four days, 
and afterwards the Governor arranged conditions of peace 
with him, to the sound of trumpets, and the royal standard 
was put into his hands. He received and held it up for the 
Emperor our Lord, thus becoming his vassal. Then all the 
principal lords and chiefs, who were present, joyfully re- 
ceived him as their lord, kissed his hand and cheek, and, 
turning their faces to the sun, gave thanks with joined 
hands, for having been granted a native ruler. Thus was 
this lord received in the place of Atabaliba, and presently 
he put on a very rich fringe, fsecured round his head and 
descending over the forehead, so as almost to cover his eyes. 
'Among these people this is the crown which he who is 
Lord of the lordship of Cuzco wears, and so it was worn by 

After all this, some of the Spaniards who had conquered 
the land, chiefly those who had been there a long time, and 
others who were worn out with illness or unable to serve by 
reason of their wounds, besought leave from the Governor 
to depart with the gold, silver, and precious stones that had 
fallen to their share, and to return to their homes. Per- 
mission was granted, and some of them went with Hernando 
Pizarro, the brother of the Governor. Others received per- 
mission afterwards, seeing that ne^v men continued to re- 
sort to this land, drawn thither by the fame of its riches. 
The Governor gave some sheep and Indians to the Spaniards 
who had obtained leave to go home, to carry their gold and 
silver and clothes to the town of San Miguel. On the road 
some of them lost gold and silver to the amount of more 
than 25,000 castellanos, because the sheep ran away with 
the gold and silver, and some of the Indians also fled. On 
this journey they suffered much hunger and thirst, and 
many hardships from a want of people to carry their loads. 


From the city of Cuzco to the port the distance is nearly 
two hundred leagues. At last they embarked and went to 
Panama, and thence to Nombre de Dios, where they again 
embarked, and our Lord conducted them to Seville, at 
which port four ships have arrived, up to the present time, 
which brought the following quantity of gold and silver : — 

On the 5th of December, 1534, the first of these four 
ships arrived at the city of Seville. In her was the Captain 
Christoval de Mena, who brought 8000 pesos of gold and 
950 marcs of silver. There was also on board a reverend 
clergyman, a native of Seville, named Juan de Losa, who 
brought 6000 "pesos of gold and eighty marcs of silver. Be- 
side these quantities, 38,946 pesos arrived in that ship. 

In the year 1534, on the 9th of January, the second ship 
arrived, named the Santa Maria de Campo, with the Captain 
Hernando Pizarro on board, brother of Francisco Pizarro, the 
Governor and Captain-General of New Castillo. In this ship 
there came, for his Majesty, 153,000 pesos of gold and 5048 
marcs of silver. Besides this, several passengers and private 
persons brought 310,000 pesos of gold and 13,500 marcs of 
silver. This treasure came in bars and planks, and in pieces 
of gold and silver enclosed in large boxes. 

In addition to all this, the ship brought, for his Majesty, 
thirty-eight vases of gold and forty-eight of silver, among 
which there was an eagle of silver. In its body were 
fitted two vases and two large pots, one of gold and 
the other of silver, each of which was capable of contain- 
ing a cow cut into pieces. There were also two sacks 
of gold, each capable of holding two fanegas of wheat ; an 
idol of gold, the size of a child four years old ; and two 
small di'ums. The other vases were of gold and silver, each 
one capable of holding two arrohas and more. In the same 
ship passengers brought home forty-four vases of silver and 
four of gold. 

This treasure was landed on the mole and conveyed to 


the Gasa de Contratacion, the vases being carried, and the 
rest in twenty-six boxes, a pair of bullocks drawing a cart 
containing two boxes. 

On the 3rd of July in the same year, three other ships 
arrived. The master of one was Francisco Rodriguez, and 
of the other Francisco Pabon. They brought, for passen- 
gers and private persons, 146,518 pesos of gold and 30,609 
marcs of silver. 

Without counting the above vases and pieces of gold and 
silver, the total amount of gold brought by these four ships 
was 708,580 pesos, a peso of gold being equal to a castellano. 
Each 'peso is commonly valued at 450 maravedis ; so that, 
taking all the gold, except vases and other pieces, that was 
registered in these four ships, it would be worth 318,860,000 

The silver was 49,008 marcs. Each marc is equal to eight 
ounces, which, counted at 2210 maravedis, makes the total 
value of the silver 108,307,680 maravedis. 

One of the last two ships that arrived, in which Francisco 
E-odriguez was master, belonged to Francisco de Xeres, a 
native of the town of Seville, who wrote this narrative by 
order of the Governor Francisco Pizarro, being in the pro- 
vince of -New Castille, in the city of Caxamalca, as Secre- 
tary to the Governor. 

Praise to God. 










To the Magnificent Lords, the Judges of the Royal Audience 
of His Majesty who reside in the city of Santo Domingo. 

Magnificent Loeds^ — I arrived in this port of Yaguana on 
my way to Spain, by order of the Governor Francisco 
Pizarro, to inform his Majesty of what has happened in that 
government of Peru, to give an account of the country, and 
of its present condition j and, as I believe that those who 
come to this city give your worships inconsistent accounts, 
it has seemed well to me to write a summary of what has 
taken place, that you may be informed of the truth, from 
the time that Ysasaga came from that land, by whom your 
worships will have been apprised of what had taken place 
up to the time of his departure. 

The Governor, in the name of his Majesty, founded a town 
near the sea coast, which was called San Miguel. It is 
twenty-five leagues from that point of Tumbez. Having 
left citizens there, and assigned the Indians in the district 
to them, he set out with sixty horse and ninety foot, in search 
of the town of Caxamalca, at which place he was informed 
that Atabaliva then was, the son of old Cuzco,^ and brother 
of him who is now Lord of that land.^ Between the two 

1 Ynca Huayna Ccapac. 

2 The puppet set up by Francisco Pizarro, when he murdered Atahu- 
allpa, and who died two months afterwards. 


brothers^ there had been a very fierce war^ and this Ataba- 
liva had conquered the land as far a^ he then was, which, 
from the point whence he started, was a hundred and fifty 
leagues. After seven or eight marches, a Captain of Ata- 
baliva came to the Governor, and said that his Lord had 
heard of his arrival and rejoiced greatly at it, having a strong 
desire to see the Christians ; and when he had been two 
days with the Governor he said that he wished to go for- 
ward and tell the news to his Lord, and that another would 
soon be on the road with a present, as a token of peace. 
The Governor continued his march until he came to a town 
called La Ramada.^ Up to that point all the land was flat, 
while all beyond was very rugged, and obstructed by very 
difficult passes. When he saw that the messenger from 
Atabaliva did not return, he wished to obtain intelligence 
from some Indians who had come from Caxamalca ; so they 
were tortured,^ and they then said that they had heard that 
Atabaliva was waiting for the Governor in the mountains to 
give him battle. The Governor then ordered the troops to ad- 
vance, leaving the rear guard in the plain. The rest ascended, 
and the road was so bad that, in truth, if they had been 
waiting for us, either in this pass or in another that we came 
to on the road to Caxamalca, they could very easily have 
stopped us ; for, even by exerting all our skill, we could 
not have taken the horses by the roads ; and neither horse 
nor foot can cross those mountains except by the roads. 
The distance across them to Caxamalca is twenty leagues. 

When we were half-way, messengers arrived from Ata- 
baliva, and brought provisions to the Governor. They said 

' Ynca Huascar and Atahuallpa. 

< A hut covered with the branches of trees. Apparently a name given 
by the Spaniards to the place at which they halted, at the foot of the 

» This was the regular custom of Hernando Pizarro, to torture the 
Indians before asking them questions. The consequence was, that he 
was told lies, and as in this instance, as will be seen further on. 


that Atabaliva was waiting for him at Caxamalca, wishing 
to be his friend ; and that he wished the Governor to know 
that his captainSj whom he has sent to the war of Cuzco, 
had taken his brother prisoner, that they would reach Caxa- 
malca within two days, and that all the territory of his father 
now belonged to him. The Governor sent back to say that 
he rejoiced greatly at this news, and that if there was any 
Lord who refused to submit, he would give assistance and 
subjugate him. Two days afterwards the Governor came in 
sight of Caxamalca, and he met Indians with food. He put 
the troops in order, and marched to the town. Atabaliva 
was not there, but was encamped on the plain, at a distance 
of a league, with all his people in tents. When the Gover- 
nor saw that Atabaliva did not come, he sent a Captain,'with 
fifteen horsemen, to speak to Atabaliva, saying that he 
would not assign quarters to the Christians until he knew 
where it was the pleasure of Atabaliva that they should 
lodge, and he desired him to come that they might be 
friends. Just then I went to speak to the Governor, touch- 
ing the orders in case the Indians made a night attack. He 
told me that he had sent men to seek an interview with 
Atabaliva. I told him that, out of the sixty cavalry we had, 
there might be some men who were not dexterous on horse- 
back, and some unsound horses, and that it seemed a mis- 
take to pick out fifteen of the best; for, if Atabaliva 
should attack them, their numbers were insufficient for de- 
fence, and any reverse might lead to a great disaster. He, 
therefore, ordered me to follow with other twenty horsemen, 
and to act according to circumstances. 

When I arrived I found the other horsemen near the 
camp of Atabaliva, and that their officer had gone to speak 
with him. I left my men there also, and advanced with two 
horsemen to the lodging of Atabaliva, and the Captain an- 
nounced my approach and who I was. I then told Ataba- 
liva that the Governor had sent me to visit him, and to ask 


him to come that they might be friends. He replied that a 
Cacique of the town of San Miguel had sent to tell him 
that we were bad people and not good for war, and that he 
himself had killed some of us, both men and horses. I an- 
swered that those people of San Miguel were like women, 
and that one horse was enough for the whole of them ; that, 
when he saw us fight, he would know what we were like ; 
that the Governor had a great regard for him : that if he 
had any enemy he had only to say so, and that the Governor 
would send to conquer him. He said that, four marches 
from that spot, there were some very rebellious Indians who 
would not submit to him, and that the Christians might go 
there to help his troops. I said that the Governor would 
send ten horsemen, who would suffice for the whole country, 
and that his Indians were unnecessary, except to search for 
those who concealed themselves. He smiled like a man 
who did not think. so much of us. The Captain told me 
that, until I came, he had not been able to get him to speak, 
but that one of his chiefs had answered for him, while he 
always kept his head down. He was seated in all the 
majesty of command, surrounded by all his women, and 
with many chiefs near him. Before coming to his presence 
there was another group of chiefs, each standing according 
to his rank. At sunset I said that I wished to go, and 
asked him to tell me what to say to the Governor. He re- 
plied that he would come to see him on the following morn- 
ing, that he would lodge in three great chambers in the 
courtyard, and that the centre one should be set apart for 

That night a good look-out was kept. In the morning 
he sent messengers to put off his visit until the afternoon ; 
and these messengers, in conversing with some Indian girla 
in the service of the Christians, who were their relations, 
told them to run away because Atabaliva was coming that 
afternoon to attack the Christians and kill them. Among 


the messengers there came that Captaia who had already- 
met the Governor on the road. He told the Governor that 
his Lord Atabaliva said that, as the Christians had come 
armed to his camp, he also would come armed. The Go- 
vernor replied that he might come as he liked. Atabaliva 
set out from his camp at noon, and when he came to a place 
which was about half a quarter of a league from Caxamalca, 
he stopped until late in the afternoon. There he pitched 
his tents, and formed his men in three divisions. The whole 
road was full of men, and they had not yet left off marching 
out of the camp. The Governor had ordered his troops to 
be distributed in the three halls {galpones)^ which were in 
the open courtyard, in form of a triangle ; and he ordered 
them to be mounted and armed until the intentions of Ata- 
baliva were known. Having pitched his tents, Atabaliva 
sent a messenger to the Governor to say that, as it was now 
late, he wished to sleep where he was, and that he would 
come in the morning. The Governor sent back to beg 
him to come at once, because he was waiting for supper, 
and that he should not sup until Atabaliva should come. 
The messengers came back to ask the Governor to send a 
Christian to Atabaliva, that he intended to come at once, 
and that he would come unarmed. The Governor sent a 
Christian,''' and presently Atabaliva moved, leaving the armed 
men behind him. He took with him about five or six 
thousand Indians without arms, except that, under their 
shirts, they had small darts and slings with stones. 

6 The word galpon is not Spanish. Garcilasso says thatr it belonged 
to the language of the Windward Islands, and that the Spaniards adopted 
it. The word means a large hall or court. The Yncas had such halls 
attached to their palaces, which were so large that festivals were held in 
them, when the weather was rainy. Such vast halls may still be seen 
among the ruins of Hervay and Pachacamac. In Cuzco they have been 
converted into modern houses. The villages of slaves in modern haci- 
endas on the Peruvian coast, which are enclosed by high walls, are called 

' Xcrcs says that he refused to send the Christian. See p. 50. 


He came in a litter, and before him went tliree or four 
hundred Indians in liveries/ cleaning the straws from the 
road and singing. Then came Atabaliva in the midst of his 
chiefs and principal men, the greatest among them being 
also borne on men's shoulders. When they entered the 
open space, twelve or fifteen Indians went up to the little 
fortress that was there and occupied it, taking possession 
with a banner fixed on a lance. When Atabaliva had ad- 
vanced to the centre of the open space, he stopped, and a 
Dominican Friar, who was with the Governor, came forward 
to tell him, on the part of the Governor, that he waited for 
him in his lodging, and that he was sent to speak with him. 
The Friar then told Atabaliva that he was a Priest, and that 
he was sent there to teach the things of the Faith, if they 
should desire to be Christians. He showed Atabaliva a 
book which he carried in his hands, and told him that that 
book contained the things of God. Atabaliva asked for the 
book, and threw it on the ground, saying : — " I will not 
leave this place until you have restored all that you have 
tciken in my land. I know well who you are, and what you 
have come for." Then he rose up in his litter, and addressed 
his men, and there were murmurs among them and calls to 
those who were armed. The Friar went to the Governor 
and reported what was being done, and that no time was 
to be lost. The Governor sent to me; and I had arranged 
with the Captain of the artillery that, when a sign was 
given, he should discharge his pieces, and that, on hearing 
the reports, all the troops should come forth at once. This 
was done, and as the Indians were unarmed, they were de- 
feated without danger to any Christian. Those who carried 
the litter, and the chiefs who surrounded Atabaliva, were 
all killed, falling round him. The Governor came out and 
seized Atabaliva, and, in protecting him, he received a knife- 

^ In liveries of different colours, like a cliess-board, Xeres tells us. 
See p. 53. 


cut from a Christian m the hand. The troops continued the 
pursuit as far as the place where the armed Indians were 
stationed, who made no resistance whatever, because it was 
now night. All were brought into the town, where the 
Governor was quartered. 

Next morning the Governor ordered us to go to the camp 
of Atabaliva, where we found forty thousand castellanos and 
four or five thousand marcos of silver. The camp was as 
full of people as if none were wanting. All the people were 
assembled, and the Governor desired them to go to their 
homes, and told them that he had not come to do them 
harm, that what he had done was by reason of the pride of 
Atabaliva, and that he himself ordered it. On asking Ata- 
baliva why he had thrown away the book and shown so 
much pride, he answered that his captain, who had been 
sent to speak with the Governor, had told him that the 
Christians were not warriors, that the horses were unsaddled 
at night, and that with two hundred Indians he could defeat 
them all. He added that this captain and the chief of San 
Miguel had deceived him. The Governor then inquired 
concerning his brother the Cuzco,^ and he answered that he 
would arrive next day, that he was being brought as a 
prisoner, and that his captain remained with the troops in 
the town of Cuzco. It afterwards turned out that in all this 
he had spoken the truth, except that he had sent orders for 
his brother to be killed, lest the Governor should restore 
him to his lordship. The Governor said that he had not 
come to make war on the Indians, but that our Lord the 
Emperor, who was Lord of the whole world, had ordered 
him to come that he might see the land, and let Atabaliva 
know the things of our Faith, in case he should wish to be- 
come a Christian. The Governor also told him that that 
land, and all other lands, belonged to the Emperor, and 
that he must acknowledge him as his Lord. He replied that 

" Ynca Huascar. 


he was content, and, observing that the Christians had col- 
lected some gold, Atabaliva said to the Governor that they 
need not take such care of it, as if there was so little ; for 
that he could give them ten thousand plates/ and that he 
could fill the room in which he was up to a white line, which 
was the height of a man and a half from the floor. The 
room was seventeen or eighteen feet wide, and thirty-five 
feet long. He said that he could do this in two months. 

Two months passed away, and the gold did not arrive, but 
the Governor received tidings that every day parties of men 
were advancing against him. In order both to ascertain 
the truth of these reports, and to hurry the arrival of the 
gold, the Governor ordered me to set out with twenty 
horsemen and ten or twelve foot soldiers for a place called 
Guamachuco, which is twenty leagues from Caxamalca. 
This was the place where it was reported that armed men 
were collecting together. I advanced to that town, and 
found a quantity of gold and silver, which I sent thence to 
Caxamalca. Some Indians, who were tortured,^ told us 
that the captains and armed men were at a place six leagues 
from Guamachuco ; and, though I had no instructions from 
the Governor to advance beyond that point, I resolved to 
push forward with fourteen horsemen and nine foot soldiers, 
in order that the Indians might not take heart at the notion 
that we had retreated. The rest of my party were sent to 
guard the gold, because their horses were lame. Next 
morning I arrived at that town, and did not find any armed 
men there, and it turned out that the Indians had told lies; 
perhaps to frighten us and induce us to return. 

At this village I received permission from the Governor 
to go to a mosque of which we had intelhgence, which was 

^ Tejuelos, square pieces of metal, on which the points of gates or 
large doors turn. Quoits are also called tejuelos. 

2 Here the ruffian is at his torturing tricks again ; and is again only 
told lies for his pains. 


a hundred leagues away on the sea-coast, in a town called 
Pachacama. It took us twenty-two days to reach it. The 
road over the mountains is a thing worth seeing, because, 
though the ground is so rugged, such beautiful roads could 
not in truth be found throughout Christendom. The greater 
part of them is paved. There is a bridge of stone or wood 
over every stream. We found bridges of network over a 
very large and powerful river, which we crossed twice, 
which was a marvellous thing to see. The horses crossed 
over by them. At each passage they have two bridges, the 
one by which the common people go over, and the other for 
the lords of the land and their captains. The approaches 
are always kept closed, with Indians to guard them. These 
Indians exact transit dues from all passengers. The chiefs 
and people of the mountains are more intelligent than those 
of the coast. The country is populous. There are mines in 
many parts of it. It is a cold climate, it snows, and there 
is much rain. There are no swamps. Fuel is scarce. Ata- 
baliva has placed governors in all the principal towns, and 
his predecessors had also appointed governors. In all these 
towns there were houses of imprisoned women, with guards 
at the doors, and these women preserve their virginity. If 
any Indian has any connection with them his punishment is 
death. Of these houses, some are for the worship of the 
Sun, others for that of old Cuzco,^ the father of Atabaliva. 
Their sacrifices consist of sheep and chicha,'^ which they 
pour out on the ground. They have another house of 
women in each of the principal towns, also guarded. These 
women are assembled by the chiefs of the neighbouring 
districts, and when the lord of the land passes by they select 
the best to present to him, and when they are taken others 
are chosen to fill up their places. These women also have 
the duty of making chicha for the soldiers when they pass 

* The Ynca Huayna Ccapac. 

* Fermented liquor from maize. 


that way. They took Indian girls out of these houses and 
presented them to us. All the surrounding chiefs come to 
these towns on the roads to perform service when the army 
passes. They have stores of fuel and maize, and of all other 
necessaries. They count by certain knots on cords, and so 
record what each chief has brought. When they had to 
bring us loads of fuel, maize, chicha, or meat, they took off 
knots or made knots on some other part ; so that those who 
have charge of the stores keep an exact account. In all 
these towns they received us with great festivities, dancing 
and rejoicing. 

When we arrived on the plains of the sea coast we met 
with a people who were less civilised, but the country was 
populous. They also have houses of women, and all the 
other arrangements as in the towns of the mountains. They 
never wished to speak to us of the mosque, for there was an 
order that all who should speak to us of it should be put to 
death., But as we had intelligence that it was on the coast, 
we followed the high road until we came to it. The road is 
very wide, with an earthen wall on either side, and houses 
for resting at intervals, which were prepared to receive the 
Cuzco when he travelled that way. There are very large 
villages, the houses of the Indians being built of canes ; and 
those of the chiefs are of earth with roofs of branches of 
trees ; for in that land it never rains. From the city of San 
Miguel to this mosque the distance is one hundred and 
sixty or one hundred aiid eighty leagues, the road passing 
near the sea shore through a very populous country. The 
road, with a wall on each side, traverses the whole of this 
country ; and, neither in that part nor in the part further 
on, of which we had notice for two hundred leagues, does it 
ever rain. They live by irrigation, for the rainfall is so 
.great in the mountains that many rivers flow from them, so 
that throughout the land there is not three leagues without 
a river. The distance from the sea to the mountains is in 


some parts ten leagues, in others twelve. It is not cold. 
Throughout the whole of this coast land, and beyond it, 
tribute is not paid to Cuzco, but to the mosque. The bishop 
of it was in Caxamalca with the Governor. He had ordered 
another room of gold, such as Atabaliva had ordered, and the 
Governor ordered me to go on this business, and to hurry 
those who were collecting it. When I arrived at the mosque, 
I asked for the gold, and they denied it to me, saying that 
they had none. I made some search, but could not find it. 
The neighbouring chiefs came to see me, and brought pre- 
sents, and in the mosque there was found some gold dust, 
which was left behind when the rest was concealed. Alto- 
gether I collected 85,000 castellanos and 3000 marcos of 

This town of the mosque is very large, and contains grand 
edifices and courts. Outside, there is another great space 
surrounded by a wall, with a door opening on the mosque. 
In this space there are the houses of the women, who, they 
say, are the women of the devil. Here, also, are the store- 
rooms, where the stores of gold are kept. There is no one 
in the place where these women are kept. Their sacrifices 
are the same as those to the Sun, which I have already 
described. Before entering the first court of the mosque, 
a man must fast for twenty days ; before ascending to the 
court above, he must fast for a year. In this upper court 
the bishop used to be. When messengers of the chiefs, 
who had fasted for a year, went up to pray to God that he 
would give them a good harvest, they found the bishop 
seated, with his head covered. There are other Indians 
whom they call pages of the Sun. When these messengers 
of the chief delivered their messages to the bishop, the pages 
of the devil went into a chamber, where they said that he 
speaks to them ; and that devil said that he was enraged 
with the chiefs, with the sacrifices they had to offer, and 
with the presents they wished to bring, I believe that they 


do not speak with the devil, but that these his servants de- 
ceive the chiefs. For I took pains to investigate the matter, 
and an old page, who was one of the chief and most con- 
fidential servants of ,their god, told a chief, who repeated it 
to me, that the devil said they were not to fear the horses, 
as they could do no harm. I caused the page to be tortured, 
and he was so stubborn in his evil creed, that I could never 
gather anything from him, but that they really held their 
devil to be a god. This mosque is so feared by all the 
Indians, that they believe that if any of those servants of 
the devil asked them for anything and they refused it, they 
would presently die. It would seem that the Indians do 
not worship this devil from any feelings of devotion, but from 
fear. For the chiefs told me that, up to that time, they had 
served that mosque because they feared it ; but that now 
they had no fear but of us, and that, therefore, they wished 
to serve us. The cave in which the devil was placed was 
very dark, so that one could not enter it without a light, 
and within it was very dirty. I made all the Caciques, 
who came to see me, enter the place that they might lose 
their fear ; and, for want of a preacher, I made my sermon, 
explaining to them the errors in which they lived. 

In this town I learnt that the principal Captain of Ata- 
baliva^ was at a distance of twenty leagues from us, in a 
town called Jauja. I sent to tell him to come and see me, 
and he replied that I should take the road to Caxamalca, 
and that he would take another road and meet me. The 
Governor, on hearing that the Captain was for peace and 
that he was ready to come with me, wrote to me to tell me 
to return ; and he sent three Christians to Cuzco, which is 
fifty leagues beyond Jauja, to take possession and to see 
the country. I returned by the road of Caxamalca, and by 
another road, where the Captain of Atabaliva was to join 
me. But he had not started ; and I learnt from certain 

* This was Chalcucliima. 

XAUXA. 125 

chiefs that he had not movea^ and that he had taken me in. 
So I went back to the place where he was, and the road 
was very rugged, and so obstructed with snow, that it cost 
us much labour to get there. Having reached the royal 
road, and come to a place called Bombon, I met a Captain 
of Atabaliva with five thousand armed Indians whom Ata- 
baliva had sent on pretence of conquering a rebel chief; 
but, as it afterwards appeared, they were assembled to kill 
the Christians. Here we found 500,000 ^esos of gold that 
they were taking to Caxamalca. This Captain told me that 
the Captain-General remained in Jauja, that he knew of 
our approach, and was much afraid. I sent a messenger to 
him, to tell him to remain where he was, and to fear nothing. 
I also found a negro here, who had gone with the Christiana 
to Cuzco, and he told me that these fears were feigned ; for 
that the Captain-General^ had many well-armed men with 
him, that he counted them by his knots in presence of the 
Christians, and that they numbered thirty-five thousand In- 
dians. So we went to Jauja, and, when we were half a 
league from the town, and found that the Captain did not 
come out to receive us, a chief of Atabaliva, whom I had 
with me and whom I had treated well, advised me to advance 
in order of battle, because he believed that the Captain in- 
tended to fight. We went up a small hill overlooking Jauja, 
and saw a large black mass in the 'plaza, which appeared to 
be something that had been burnt. I asked what it was, 
and they told me that it was a crowd of Indians. The 
plaza is large, and has a length of a quarter of a league. As 
no one came to receive us on reaching the town, our people 
advanced in the expectation of having to fight the Indians. 
But, at the entrance of the square, some principal men came 
out to meet us with offers of peace, and told us that the 
Captain was not there, as he had gone to reduce certain 
chiefs to submission. It would seem that he had gone out 

® Chalcuchima. 


of fear with some of his troops, and had crossed a riveT 
near the town by a bridge of network. I sent to tell him 
to come to me peaceably, or else the Christians would de- 
stroy him. Next morning the people came who were in 
the square. They were Indian servants, and it is true that 
they numbered over a hundred thousand souls. We remained 
here five days, and during all that time they did nothing 
but dance and sing, and hold great drinking feasts. The 
Captain did not wish to come with me, but when he saw 
that I was determined to make him, he came of his own 
accord. I left the chief who came with me as Captain there. 
This town of Jauja is very fine and picturesque, with very 
good level approaches, and it has an excellent river bank. 
In all my travels I did not see a better site for a Christian 
settlement, and I believe that the Governor intends to form 
one there, though some think that it would be more con- 
venient to select a position near the sea, and are, therefore, 
of an opposite opinion. All the country, from Jauja to 
Caxamalca, by the road we returned, is like that of which 
I have already given a description. 

After returning to Caxamalca, and reporting my pro- 
ceedings to the Governor, he ordered me to go to Spain, 
and to give an account to his Majesty of this and other 
things which appertain to his service. I took, from the 
heap of gold, 100,000 castellanos for his Majesty, being the 
amount of his fifth. The day after I left Caxamalca, the 
Christians, who had gone to Cuzco, returned, and brought 
1,500,000 of gold. After I arrived at Panama, another 
ship came in, with some knights. They say that a distri- 
bution of the gold was made ; and that the share of his 
Majesty, besides the 100,000 pesos and the 5000 marcos of 
silver that I bring, was another 165,000 castellanos, and 
7000 or 8000 marcos of silver ; while to all those of us who 
had gone, a further share of gold was sent. 

After my departure, according to what the Governor 


writes to me, it became known tliat Atabaliva had assem- 
bled troops to make war on the Christians, and justice was 
done upon him. The Governor made his brother, who was 
his enemy, lord in his place. Molina comes to this city, 
and from him your worships may learn anything else that 
you may desire to know. The shares of the troops were, to 
the horsemen 9000 castellanos, to the Governor 6000, to me 
3000. The Governor has derived no other profit from that 
land, nor has there been deceit or fraud in the account. I 
say this to your worships, because if any other statement is 
made, this is the truth. May our Lord long guard and 
prosper the magnificent persons of your worships. 

Done in this city, November 1533. At the service of 
your worships. 

Hernando Pizarro. 













In the town of Caxamalca, of these kingdoms of New Cas- 
tille, on the 1 7th day of the month of June, in the year of 
the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1533, the very magnifi- 
cent Lord and Commander Francisco Pizarro, Adelantado, 
Lieutenant, Captain-General, and Governor for his Majesty 
in the said kingdoms, in the presence of me, Pedro Sancho, 
Lieutenant of the General Secretary, on the part of the 
Lord Pedro Samano, declares : that, on the occasion of the 
imprisonment and defeat of the chief Atahuallpa and of his 
troops in this town, some gold was collected, and that after- 
wards the said chief promised to the Christian Spaniards 
that they should find a certain quantity of gold in his prison, 
which quantity should, he declared, be a room full, namely, 
10,000 tejuelos, and much silver which he possessed and 
promised ; and which his captains, in his name, had taken 
in the war and capture of Cuzco, and in the conquest of 
those lands, by many ways which are more fully declared in 
the act which was attested before a notary ; and which the 
said chief has given, brought, and ordered to be given 
and brought : of which a division and distribution has been 
made, as well of the gold as the silver, and of the pearls and 
emeralds which have been given, and of their value, among 
the persons who were present at the capture of the said 
chief, and who acquired and took the said gold and silver. 


and to whom the said chief promised, gave, and delivered 
it ; so that each person might have, hold, and possess that 
which belonged to him ; in order that his Lordship might 
without delay settle the matter, and leave this town to go 
and people and reduce the land beyond, and for many other 
reasons which are not herein stated ; for which object the said 
Lord Governor declared that his Majesty, in his provisions 
and royal orders, in which he granted the government of 
these kingdoms, commanded that all the fruits and other 
things that in these lands might be found and acquired, 
should be given and distributed among the conquerors who 
should acquire them, in the way that seemed best to him, 
and according as each person should deserve by reason of 
his rank and services; and considering the above said com- 
mands, and other things that ought to be considered in 
making the distribution, and that each man might have his 
share of what the chief had given, as his Majesty had com- 
manded, he has determined to name and select before me, 
the said notary, the quantity of silver which each person 
shall have and take, according as, in his conscience, God 
our Lord shall give him understanding ; and, for the better 
performance, he seeks the aid of God our Lord, and invokes 
his divine assistance. 

Then the said Lord Governor, considering what is said 
and declared in the deed, having God before his eyes, 
assigned to each person the marcos of silver that he had 
earned and deserved, out of what the said chief had given, 
and in this manner it was arranged. 

On the 18th of June of the same year of 1533, the said 
Governor approved another deed, by which the gold was to 
be melted and distributed; and the gold was melted and dis- 
tributed in this manner. I distinguish the gold and silver 
that each one received in the following columns ; that the 
list of persons may only be given once. 


To the Church 

To the Lord Governor, for his persons, his 

interpreters, and horse 
To Hernando Pizarro 
To Hernando de Soto * 
To Father Juan de Sosa, Chaplain to the army 
To Juan Pizarro 
To Pedeo de Candia^ 
To Gonzalo Pizarro 
To Juan Cortes 
To Sebastian de Benalcazar^ 
To Cristobal Mena, or Medina 
To Luis Hernandez Bueno 
To Juan de Salazar 
To Miguel Estete^ 
To Francisco de Jerez 
More to the said Jerez and Pedro Sancho for 

writing .... 
To Gonzalo de Pineda* . 
ToAlonzo Briceuo^ 
>-To Alonzo de Medina 
To Juan Pizarro de Orellana^ 
To Luis Marca 

^ One of the thirteen. See Note at p. 8. 

2 For some account qf the career of Benalcazar see my translations of 
Pascual de Andagoya; and of Cieza de Leon. Note at p. 110. 

s See Note at p. 74. 

* Killed by Indians who captured him, in the war between Gonzalo 
Pizarro and the Viceroy Blasco Nunez. O. de la Vega, ii, lib. ir, 
p. 24. 

5 One of the thirteen. See Note at p. 8. 

« Went with Hernando Pizarro to Pachacamac. la Vega, ii, 
lib. i, cap. 29. 






. 2220 








. 7770 




. 9909 


. 9909 


. 9430 


. 9909 


. 8380 


. 9435 


. 9435 


. 8980 


. 8880 


. 2220 


. 9909 


. 8380 


. 8480 


. 8980 


. 8880 



To Geronimo de Aliaga'^ . 

. 339.. 


To Gonzalo Perez 

. 362.. 


To Pedro de Barrientos . 

. 362. 


To Rodrigo Nunez^ , 

. 362.. 


To Pedro Anades 

. 362. 


To Francisco Maraver 

. 362. 


To Diego Maldonado^ 

. 362. 


To Ramiro or Francisco de Chaves^ 

. 362. 


To Diego Ojuelos 

. 362 


To Gines de Carranca 

. 362. 


To Juan de Quincoces 

. 362. 


To Alonzo de Morales 

. 362. 


To Lope Velez . 

. 362. 


To Juan de Barbaian^ 

. 362. 


To Pedro de Aguirre 

. 362. 


To Pedro de Leon 

. 362. 


To Diego Mejia 

. 362. 


To Martin Alonzo 

. 362. 


To Juan de Rosas 

. 362. 


To Pedro Catano 

. 362. 


' He was appointed Governor of Lima by Vaca de Castro, and dis- 
tinguished himself in the battle of Chupas against the younger Almagro. 
O. de la Veffa, ii, lib. ii, caps. 12 and 18. 

^ He was put to death on suspicion, by Gonzalo Pizarro, at Lima. 
G. de la Vega, ii, lib. iv, cap. 20. 

* A very conspicuous personage in the future civil wars. He took a 
part in them all, down to the insurrection of Giron. He was surnamed 
"the rich", and became a citizen of Cuzco, where he died in 1562. 
Frequent mention of him will be found in Garcilasso. 

> See Note at p. 104. 

« It should be Juan de Barbaran. He was a native of Truxillo, and 
was a servant of the Conqueror. When Pizarro was murdered no man 
dared to bury the body, for fear of the assassins, until the faithful Bar- 
baran and his wife performed the office in the best way they could, 
dressing the body in the mantle of Santiago. Barbaran afterwards 
fought bravely against the younger Almagro at the battle of Chupas. 
G. de la Vega^ ii, lib. iii, cap. 7. 



To Pedro Ortiz^ 

. 362. 


To Juan Morquejo 

. 362. 


To Hernando de Toro ' . 

. 316. 


To Diego de Aguero* 

. 362. 


To Alonzo Perez 

. 362. 


To Hernando Beltran 

. 362. 


To Pedro de Barrera 

. 362. 


To Francisco de Baena 

. 362. 


To Francisco Lopez 

. 371. 


To Sebastian de Torres . 

. 362. 


To Juan Ruiz . 

. 339. 



. 362. 


To Gonzalo del Castillo . 

. 362. 


To Nicolas de Azpitia 

. 339. 


To Diego de Molina 

. 316. 


To Alonzo Peto 

. 316. 


To Miguel Ruiz 

. 362.. 


To Juan de Salinas^ (blacJcsmith) 

. 362.. 


To Juan Loz 

. 248.. 


To Cristobal Gallego {no gold) 

. 316. 

. — 

To Rodrigo de Cantillana {no gold) 

. 248. 

. — 

To Gabriel Telor {no gold) 

. 294.. 


To Hernan Sanchez^ 

. 262.. 


To Pedro Sa Paramo 

. 271.. 


» Pedro Ortiz de Orue became a citizen of Cuzco, and married a sister 
of the Ynca Sayri Tupac. See Note at p. 253 of vol. ii of my transla- 
tion of Oarcilasso de la Vega, Part I. 

* When the Indians rose against the Spaniards, under Ynca Manco, 
Diego de Aguero received timely notice from the Indian servants on hia 
estate, and escaped into Lima, After the murder of Pizarro, he fled 
from the Almagro faction, and joined Vaca de Castro at Truxillo. He 
also persuaded the people of Lima to receive the unpopular Viceroy 
Blasco Nunez. He seems to have been a loyal, peaceable man. 

* One of the twelve who protested against the murder of Atahuallpa. 
See Note at p. 103. 

* O. de la Vega, ii, lib. viii, cap. 13. 

' Hernan Sanchez de Vargas was abandoned on the desert shore of 



To Juan de Porras 
To Gregorio Sotelo 
To Pedro Sancho 
To Garcia de Paredes 
To Juan de Baldivieso 
To Gonzalo Maldonado 
To Pedro Navarro 
To Juan Ronquillo 
To Antonio de Bergara 
To Alonzo' de la Carrera 
To Alonzo Komero 
To Melchor Berdugo^ 
To Martin Bueno^ 
To Juan Perez Tudela 
To Inigo Taburco 

181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181. ..4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
181... 4540 
135... 3330 
135... 4440 
181... 4440 
181. ..4440 

the Napo, by Orellana, when he descended the Amazon. See my Valley 
of the Amazons., p. 12. 

^ Melchior Verdugo was a native of Avila. He received a large grant 
in the valley of Caxamarca. He distinguished himself in the battle of 
Chupas against Almagro the younger. He was a friend of the Viceroy 
Blasco Nunez de Vela; and when Gonzalo Pizarro rebelled and declared 
himself Governor of Peru, his Lieutenant Carbajal seized Verdugo at 
Lima, and put him in prison. He was afterwards allowed to go to his 
own house in Truxillo. There he played the party of Gonzalo Pizarro 
an extraordinary trick. A ship was at anchor in the port, and he invited 
the captain and pilot to his house, and locked them up. He then looked 
out of his window and saw the Alcalde and others. He called to them, 
begging them to come up and witness a deed, as he had a pain in his 
feet and could not go down. Up they came, suspecting nothing, and 
were locked up also. He did the same to about twenty of the leading 
men of Gonzalo's party, and then seized the ship, sailing in her to Nica- 
ragua, with a few followers ; and a quantity of gold and silver, which 
he had extorted from his captives. He was chased by some vessels of 
Gonzalo, and his ship was seized, after he had landed. After staying 
some time in Nicaragua and at Carthagena, he went to Spain and re- 
ceived the habit of Santiago. He returned to Peru in 1563. 

' One of the three soldiers who were sent to Cuzco by Pizarro. See 
p. 72. (Note.) 



To Nuno Gonzalo (no gold) 

To Juan de Herrera 

To Francisco Davalos 

To Hernando de Aldana . 

To Martin de Marquina . 

To Antonio de Herrera 

To Sandoval (Chistian name not given) 

To Miguel Estete^ de Santiago 

To Juan Bonallo 

To Pedro Moguer^ 

To Francisco Perez 

To Melchor Palomino 

To Pedro de Alconchel 

To Juan de Segovia 

To Crisostomo de Ontiveros 

To Heman Munoz 

To Alonso de Mesa^ 

To Juan Perez de Oma 

To Diego de Teuxillo* 

111... — 
158. ..3385 
181... 4440 
181... 4440 
135... 3330 
136. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
181. ..44 40 
181... 4440 
158... 3880 
158.. .3330 
135... 4440 
181... 3330 
135. ..3330 
135.. .3330 
135.. .3330 
135... 3885 
158.. .3330 

1 See Note at p. 74. 

^ One of the three soldiers who were sent to Cuzco by Pizarro. See 
p. 72. (Note.) 

3 Alonzo de Mesa became a citizen of Cuzco, and had a house next 
door to that of Garcilasso de la Vega (ii, p. 25'4), He had a very pretty 
girl living in his house, and when young Altamtrano was riding a race, 
he kept looking back at her in Mesa's balcony, until he fell ofF. In the 
rebellion of Giron in 1550, M&sa fled from Cuzco, and the licentiate 
Alvarado, Giron's lieutenant, discovered and dug up sixty bars of silver, 
worth three hundred ducats each, in the fugitive's back garden. Young 
Garcilasso saw the robbers at work, from a window of his father's house. 
Mesa's son, also named Alonzo, and probably a half-caste, was employed 
by the Ynca family as their advocate in Spain, in 1603. 

♦ According to Garcilasso de la Vega, this Diego de Tru^iUo was one 
of the men who stood by Pizarro on the island of Gallo. See Note at p. 8. 
He had large estates near Duzco, and was imprisoned there by Almagro, 
when he came back from Chile and seized the Pizarros and their ad- 
herents. He afterwards distinguished himself in the battle of Chupas 
against the younger Almagro. In the rebellion of Giron he remained 



To Palomino {cooper) 

To Alonzo Jimenez 

To Pedro de Torres 

To Alonzo de Toro^ 

To Diego Lopez^ 

To Francisco Gallegosa 

To Bonilla 

To Francisco de Almendras' 

To Escalante 

181... 4440 
181... 4440 
135... 3330 
135... 3330 
135... 3330 
135. ..3330 
181... 4440 
181... 4440 
181... 3330 

loyal, and joined the Marshal Alvarado. The historian GarcUasso knew 
Diego de Truxillo at Cuzco, and he was still living there in 1560. 

• When the Ynca Manco besieged Cuzco, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied out 
as far as the lake of Chinchero, two leagues to the north, where he was 
attacked by a large army of Indians. He would have been overpowered, 
had not his brother Hernando Pizarro and Alonzo de Toro come out to 
the rescue. When (Jonzalo Pizarro rebelled against the Viceroy Blasco 
Nunez, he appointed Alonzo de Toro to be his Master of the Camp at 
Cuzco, but he fell Ul on the road to Lima, and Carbajal took his place. 
Toro returned to Cuzco, where he heard that Diego Centeno had risen 
against Gonzalo Pizarro. He then collected some troops, and pursued 
Centeno as far as La Plata (Chuquisaca) in the extreme south of Peru, 
returning to Cuzco. There appears to have been much jealousy between 
Toro and Carbajal. While Alonzo de Toro was Governor of Cuzco for 
Gonzalo Pizarro, he married a daughter of one Diego Gonzalez de 
Vargas. They all lived together. One day the father-in-law came 
home, and found his daughter and her husband quarrelling. Alonzo 
was proud and quick-tempered. Diego Gonzalez was an old man, more 
than sixty-five. Alonzo rushed at his father-in-law, calling him names. 
In self-defence the old man drew a dagger ; Alonzo rushed upon it, and 
received a mortal wound. 

« Probably Diego Lopez de Zuniga, who served under Centeno, at 
the battle of Huarina; and was afterwards named a Captain of Infantry 
by the Royal Audience, to serve against Giron. 

' Francisco de Almendras settled in Charcas and became very rich. 
He was very kind to Diego Centeno, who came out to Peru very young, 
and treated him as his own son. Indeed, they were called father and 
son. Almendras became Governor of La Plata (Chuquisaca) for Gon- 
zalo Pizarro; where Centeno ungratefully put him to death, as a com- 
mencement of his insurrection on the side of loyalty, and against Gon- 
zalo. But Zarate gives Almendras a very bad character. (Hist, del 
Peru, lib. v, cap. 21.) 



To Andres Jimenez 

To Juan Jimenez 

To Garcia Martin 

To Alonzo Ruiz 

To Lucas Martinez 

To Gomez Gonzalez 

To Alonzo de Albuquerque 

To Francisco de Vargas . 

To Diego Gavilan^ 

To Contreras {dead) 

To Rodrigo de Herrera (musketeer) 

To Martin de Florencia^ . 

To Anton de Oviedo 

To Jorge Griego 

To Pedro de San Millan^ 

181. ..3330 
181. ..3330 
135... 3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135... 3330 
94.. .2220 
181. ..4440 
181... 3884 
133. ..2770 
135.. .3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
181... 4440 
135.. .3330 

^ Diego Gavilan was a man of good family, but he was unlucky. He 
settled at Cuzco, and in 1550 he was still poor ; so Giron persuaded him 
to join in his rebellion, and to become a Captain of Horse in the insurgent 
army. When Giron fled from Pucara, Gavilan went over to the royal 
army, and obtained his pardon. 

^ He did not wish to join the rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro, and was 
therefore hanged at Lima by cruel old Carbajal, together with Pedro del 

1 Pedro de San Millan became a partizan of Almagro, and he was one 
of the thirteen assassins who, led by Juan de Rada, ran across the 
square of Lima to murder Pizarro, on Sunday, the 26th of June, 1541. 
They ran with their drawn swords, shouting, "Death to the tyrant!" 
Rushing up the stairs of Pizarro's house, they were met by Francisco de 
Chaves, who tried to stop them. He received a sword-thrust, and a 
cut which nearly severed his head, and the body was hurled down the 
steps. Dr. Velasquez and the servants, hearing the noise, escaped out 
of the windows into a garden. Pizarro was defended by his half-brother, 
Francisco Martin de Alcantara, and by two young pages, Juan de Var- 
gas, a son of Gomez de Tordoya, and Alonzo Escandon. They had no 
time to put on armour ; but Pizarro and his brother defended the door- 
way with great bravery, for a long time. At last Alcantara was slain, 
and one of the pages took his place. Then Juan de Rada seized one of 
the other assassins, named Narvaez, and hurled him against Pizarro, who 
received him on his dagger, and killed him. But, in the scuflle, the 



To Pedro Catalan 

To Pedro Roman 

To Francisco de la Torre 

To Francisco Gorducho 

To Juan Perez de Gomora 

To Diego de Narvaez 

To Gabriel de Olivarez 

To Juan Garcia de Santa Olalla 

To Pedro de Mendoza^ 

To Juan Garcia (musketeer) 

To Juan Perez 

To Francisco Martin^ 

To Bartolorad Sanchez (sailor) 

To Martin Pizarro 

To Hernando de Montalvo 

To Pedro Pinelo 

To Lazaro Sanchez 

To Miguel Comejo* 

03... 3330 
93. ..2220 
131. ..2775 
135. ..3330 
181... 4440 
113.. .2775 
181. ..4440 
135. ..3330 
185. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135. ..3330 
135... 3330 
135... 3330 
181. ..3330 
135... 3330 
94... 3330 
135. ..3330 

others rushed into the room. The two young pages fell fighting bravely, 
after having severely wounded four of the assassins. Pizarro was thus 
left alone. The murderers attacked him on all sides, and at last he was 
stabbed in the throat. He fell to the ground, made the sign of the Cross 
on the floor with his right hand, kissed it, and expired. Four of the 
assassins were killed, and four wounded. Of the others, Cristoval de 
Sosa's name occurs in this list, further on ; Martin de Bilbao was hanged 
and quartered after the battle of Chupas ; Juan de Rada died at Xauxa 
before the battle; Diego Mendez (a brother of Orgoiiez) fled to the court 
of the Ynca Manco in the mountains of Vilcapampa, where he was 
killed, with some other Spaniards, because one of them murdered the 
Ynca; Martin Carrillo was killed in the battle of Chupas; Gomez Perez 
was the actual murderer of the Ynca Manco, and was killed with Mendez. 
The other two were obscure men, and their fate is unknown. 

* One of the twelve who protested against the murder of Atahuallpa. 
See Note at p. 103. 

3 Francisco Martin de Alcantara, the uterine brother of Francisco 
Pizarro. He was killed by the assassins of Pizarro, while striving to de- 
fend him. 

* Miguel Cornejo settled at Arequipa. When old Francisco de Car- 
bajal (afterwards the famous Lieutenant of Gouzalo Pizarro) first came 



To Francisco Gonzalez 

To Francisco Martinez 

To ^arate^ {no Christian name) 

To Hernando de Loja 

To Juan de Niza 

To Francisco de Solar 

To Hernando de Jemendo 

To Juan Sanchez 

To Sancho de Villegas 

To Pedro de Yelva {no gold) 

'To Juan Chico . 

To Rodas {tailor) 

To Pedro Salinas de la Hoz 

To Anton Estevan Garcia 

To Juan Delgado Menzon 

To Pedro de Valencia 

To Alonzo Sanchez Talavera 

To Miguel Sanchez 

To Juan Garcia {common crier) 











to Peru, he was very poor. He arrived at Arcquipa, with his wife Dona 
Catalina Leyton and two servants, on his way to Charcas ; but he was 
friendless, and they remained for three hours in a comer of the square, 
houseless and hungry. Miguel Cornejo saw them there when he went 
to chiu-ch, and again when he came out ; so he invited them into his 
house. Long afterwards, after Gonzalo had won the battle of Huarina, 
Carbajal marched to Arequipa. The citizens fled, but were overtaken 
and brought back by the followers of Carbajal, and among them was 
Miguel Cornejo. Old Carbajal sent for his former host, and told him 
that, for his sake, he would do no injury to the citizens or the town of 
Arequipa. When Giron rose in rebellion, Miguel Cornejo, with other 
citizens of Arequipa, joined the royal army under Pedro de Meneses. 
They were surprised by Giron at Villacuri, in the desert between Yea 
and Pisco, and retreated, making a running fight for three leagues. 
Cornejo wore a Burgundian helmet with a closed visor ; and what with 
the heat and dust, he was suffocated, and so died, to the great sorrow of 
all who knew him ; for he was a virtuous and generous knight. 

' This was Francisco de Zarate, one of the three soldiers who were 
sent to Cuzco by Pizarro. See Note on p. 72. 



To Lozano 

To Garcia Lopez 

To Juan Munoz 

To Juan de Berlanga 

To Esteban Garcia 

To Juan de Salvatierra 

To Pedro Calderon {no gold) 

To Gaspar de Marquina (no silver) 

To Diego Escudero {no silver) 

To Cristobal de Sosa^ 

84... 2220 
135... 3330 
135. ..3330 
180... 4440 

94... 4440 
135... 3330 
135... — 

— ...3330 

— ...4440 
135... 3330 

The Governor also said that 20,000 pesos should be as- 
signed to the men who came with the Captain Diego de 
Almagro, to aid them in paying their debts and freight, 
and to furnish them with some necessaries that they re- 

He also said that 15,000 ^jesos of gold should be given to 
the thirty persons who remained in the city of San Miguel 
de Piura sick, and to others who were not present at the 
capture of the chief Atahuallpa nor at the taking of the gold; 
because some were poor and others had much need ; and 
his Lordship ordered this sum to be distributed among 
those persons. 

He also said that for the 8000 pesos which the company 
gave to Hernando Pizarro to enable him to explore the 
country, and for other things such as the work of the barber 
and surgeon, and for things that had been given the chiefs, 
8000 pesos should be taken from the mass. 

All which the Lord Governor declared to be good and to 
be well arranged, and he moreover declared that the sum 
which each man received might be taken by him in the 
name of God and his conscience, having respect to what his 

• One of the assassins of Francisco Pizarro. See Note at p. 139. 


Majesty had commanded ; and he ordered that it should be 
given and distributed by weight, and before me, the notary, 
to each man as had been declared, signed by order of his 

Pedro Sancho. 





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no. 47